Category Archives: Automobile

Electric Cars

The invention of vehicles made a land mark in the history of human race. The evolution of vehicles from animal carts to motor vehicles made the travel convenient and easy for people. By 19th century the use of motor vehicles was popular. The illustrious and affluent class people used motor vehicles as a prestigious symbol. Among the vehicles motor cars were widely used. After industrialization the use of motor vehicles increased as result of usage of motor vehicles by the common man. Soon the use of vehicles became an integral part of people in modern time all over the world. Among the motor vehicles the motor cars were accepted by people irrespective of their class or standard in the society. Soon cars became a necessity of common man rather than a luxury of elite class. Different models of cars were introduced by car manufacturing companies all over the world.

The increase in the demand of new and innovative designs and models of cars made the car companies particularly world class car manufacturing companies to increase in the production of cars within short intervals in a year. Most of the motor cars work using fuels. Diesel and petrol are the most popular fuels used in motor cars. In most of the developed countries gasoline cars replaces diesel or petrol cars. During the 19th and earlier 20th century the introduction of electric cars also made a change in the history of cars. People of elite class preferred electric cars as they were not common in usage due to their expensive usage. The work pattern of electric cars is based on electric usage by storing electric energy in the batteries of the engine in electric cars. An electric vehicle or automobile is defined as a vehicle that use electric motor for propulsion unlike an electric car that use electricity that is stored in the battery of the car engine. During 1930’s the introduction of gasoline cars that had half reduced cost effect in comparison to the electric cars gave a declined graph in the use of electric cars.

After a long time of decline during early 1990’s and in recent years, electric cars regained demand among different class of people in the society. The adverse environmental impact created by fuel and gasoline vehicles gave a new perspective in the use of electric cars. Apart form the initial cost and expense the new battery technologies used in the modern cars resulted in the increased demand of electric cars today. The remarkable features of electric cars are their environmental friendly use that does not result in the air pollution like fuel or gasoline vehicles. They do not produce any carbon compounds like hydro carbon, carbon monoxide, ozone lead and other volatile compounds emitted from the motor vehicles. Another feature is its efficiency. Unlike motor vehicles with internal combustion engines that waste the fuel through heat during propulsion electric car motors converts the battery stored energy to drive the vehicle without emitting any pollutants. A typical electric car use 10-23 kilowatts per hour. The only drawback in the electric car is that 20% of the power consumption is used for charging the batteries. The risk of fire in the engine due to the overheating of batteries is another negative aspect in electric cars.

The safety measures in electric cars are done as per the standards of ISO 6469. The three major concerns regarding the safety measures taken in electric cars are onboard electrical energy storage in the battery, protection of person against electrical hazards and functional safety means and protection against failures.

The usage of electric car need to be promoted more in this modern era for its efficient function and less environmental damage features despite its heavy initial cost and expense.

Diesel Vs Gasoline Engines

The invention of vehicle made a great impact in the life of people. Earlier carts pulled animals and tiers were used for transportation. To reach far away places covering long distances became possible with the invention of motor vehicles that worked on fuel consumption. Since fuel consumption is the inevitable factor for the functioning of motor vehicles several type of fuels began to be introduced by the end of the 19th century. The discovery of petrol and diesel in the Middle East countries marked a new era of fuel or oil consumption in the world market. In every place where vehicles were used for transportation petrol or diesel began to be widely used.

In many motor vehicles diesel engines are used as the lubricating oil in the motor engines. In the year 1892 Rudolf Diesel invented diesel engine. Diesel is produced from different sources and the main source of diesel is from the petroleum. The petroleum diesel is also known as petroleum diesel. There are other alternatives for diesel such as bio diesel; biomass to liquid and gas to liquid are other oils that are not derived from the petroleum. Diesel use more air inside the cylinder of the engine and with the combination of oxygen or air less diesel is consumed unlike high burn spark ignition engines. The diesel engines do not use high voltage spark ignition plugs. In a diesel engine air is compressed inside the cylinder of the engine to the high and low pressure and temperature. Due to this high compression value diesel engines are preferred than spark ignited engines. Diesel is also taken in gas turbine internal combustion engines and in external combustion engines. In the defense sector in armed force diesel vehicles are used as armored fighting vehicles for its fuel efficiency and lower flammability.

Even though the there are positive attributes makes the diesel the common fuel, some of its drawbacks give way to the usage of alternative fuels. Bio diesel, natural gas and gasoline are most widely used as the alternative of petroleum and diesel. Gasoline is also derived from the petroleum. Gasoline has organic compounds that gives it’s the transparent liquid characteristics mostly used in internal combustion engines. Certain gasoline form contains ethanol that is also used as alternative fuel. In the first internal combustion or Otto Engines the fuel used was volatile hydro carbon obtained form the coal gas. The impurities in the chemical structure of the carbon compounds gave less fuel efficiency. The transparent chemical structure of the gasoline with less impurity soon made it the most demanded fuel. The fuel efficiency of gasoline is due to its chemical bonding in the conversion of hydro carbon in to carbon dioxide and water. The higher combustion ration increases the mechanical energy of the engine. The diesel vehicle in extreme cold climate has low efficiency and the runaway failure in the diesel engine made gasoline a more convenient option of fuel in vehicles. Even though gasoline is widely used in passenger automobiles diesel is used in different type of vehicles including heavy transportation vehicles.

United States is having 44% of the gasoline consumption in the world. As per the statistics in 2006 US has the highest consumption rate of gasoline of 510 billion liters. Gasoline is widely used in western countries when compared to the developing countries. In the countries of rough terrain diesel vehicles are widely used. The rate of diesel consumption is lower than gasoline that makes it’s the widely used fuel in developing countries.

Even though there is high demand for diesel and gasoline consumption the toxins and other components emitted during the use of these two in vehicles are threat to the environment that promotes ecological damage and environmental pollution.

Contribution of Ford in Car Manufacturing History

One of the greatest inventions in the history of mankind is the invention of automobiles. In ancient times the mode of travel from one place to another was walking long distances. The affluent people used to have palanquins and palanquin bearers. Another mode of travel was using animals. Horses and elephants were trained for the purpose of traveling. Gradually wooden structures attached with wheels were begun to be used for moving from one place to another. This was the primitive form of an automobile. Later animals were used to drag or move these wheels structure formed another mode of transportation known as the carts. In some places servants were used in the place of animals to pull the carts. Gradually carts were used for several purposes of traveling including carrying luggage and people. Bullock carts and horse carriages became common for traveling. Soon after the invention of carts steam engine was introduced.  By the middle of 18th century motor engines were introduced. Automobiles using fuels were introduced and replaced carts, cycles and steam engines.

In the year 1902 manufacturing of automobiles at a large scale was introduced. After the introduction of Ford Cars, the automobile industry was literally dominated by the Ford Company. In the year 1914 the manufacturing of automobiles particularly the production of parts of cars and its interchangeable parts were introduced in a massive scale by Henry Ford. The special feature of Ford cars were there high productivity in the number of cars produced. The human resource or the man power used for the production of Ford cars were less when compared to production of other automobiles. The productivity of the ford cars were eight fold. The fast drying Duo lacquer was used in ford cars. Another feature of the ford cars were the high efficiency of the workers. This was mainly due to their work pattern assigned to them. Every worker was assigned specific work area that increased the efficiency and productivity of the worker. Their efficiency was well paid with high wages that to a great extent increased the economic strategy of United States. The high efficiency and high wages theory was the inspiration to other industries. The growth of the Ford Company was amazing as it resulted in overwhelming response from the automobile users all over the world that made the company to have new openings all over the world. The fame of Ford was spread in most parts of the Europe that resulted in the new production of Ford cars in Britain and France in 1911. Ford Denmark in 1923 and Ford Germany in 1925. The brand name Ford became the synonym for cars during that period and even today to certain extent the conservative section of society considers Ford as the most valuable possession they can have. After Ford several cars manufactures like Morris and Apperson came to the automobile industry. At the time of economic depression during 1930 even renowned car companies, Dorris, Haynes, Cole and Premier had to face harsh economic crisis. The American car manufacturers in 1920 were about 200 reduced to a number of 43 in the year 1930.

Today most of the car uses advanced technology with internal combustion engine with high fuel efficiency. For more efficiency most of the automobiles use gasoline and petrol. Diesel is another fuel used in cars next to gasoline and petrol.

Future car technologies are more advanced with battery electric and electric vehicles, bio fuels, hydrogen cars and alternative fuels. The new technology development focuses on driverless car in near future for the future generations.

It is an admitted fact that what ever be the technology an automobile industry without the production of cars is unimaginable in the fast moving life of today.

Stereos and Music Systems in Cars

World without voice and sound is beyond imagination. The various sound produced makes a lively life. Sounds are used in various forms that make musical notes and sound from the instruments. After the invention of radio people began to listen to various radio programs including entertainment program and news. With introduction of several transmission stations different type of radio programs were stated to be broadcasted. During the period of 1930’s music lovers began to adapt domestic audio equipment in their cars. Later on with the invention of audio systems people started using personal audio systems that recorded and played different programs. With the technological development radio systems began to be used in the vehicles. In 1930s the first fitted car radio was introduced by Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. During 1950’s-1970’s car radios with tune in function became popular. In the year 1983 the car audio amplifiers were introduced by Steven Mantz as Hi Fonics Zeus.

Earlier the home audio speakers were installed in the cars. In order for to adapt these home audio speakers to the temperature variations different components and different manufacturing techniques were used. During the 1980s compact discs were introduced that replaced the magnetic tape systems that were used as audio cassettes in audio systems. Later on stereo systems began to be the most widely used in automobiles particularly in the cars as it gave more clarity sounds instead of the mono audio systems.

In 1990’s technological revolutions began in the audio system technology. The CDs were widely used in the cars. The major drawback of CDs was that they are subject to vibration and temperature of moving vehicle that affected the sound quality. Many innovations including passive and active digital skip protection improved the vibration and temperature while playing and reduced the risk of shock and vibration.

There are several components included in the car stereo or audio system. The stock system in a vehicle includes stereo sound head unit, speakers, CD player. These components are installed in the interior panels and input jack for external play back devices including smart phones. The main component is the head unit. It is the primary control device in an audio system. This need to be fixed in the dash panel of the vehicle between the passenger and the driver. It is placed in certain vehicles vertically between the passenger and the driver. The standard size of the head units are technically termed as DIN. There are two types of DIN single and double DIN. The head unit is a multipurpose device with a group of devices with different functions. CD player, DVD player, satellite radio, HD radio, USB flash memory, a portable hard disc drive and radio receiver and tuner for receiving and tuning FM radio transmissions. The stereo speakers in cars are like the loudspeakers. Marine speakers have the special feature of corrosion resistance. The materials used are with expensive and rare components that are adaptable for mobile use. In modern cars speakers are installed in front deck or dash of the car, the rear deck the kick panel that is located in the foot well below the A- pillar. Even though the headsets have an inbuilt amplifier some time as an additional feature external amplifiers are also installed in the vehicle.

One of the drawbacks of the car stereos is the legal restriction in the production of sound in the vehicle. There are strict legal restrictions regarding the production of sound that the stereo sound shouldn’t exceed any sound limit that makes noise pollution. The loud stereo systems create low frequency of sound resulting in bass voices that exceeds the audible limit.

The relaxing and refreshing music from the stereo systems is a good factor to have a car drive but the control over sound produced form the system need to be in concern while driving.

Rent a Car

Own vehicle is an asset for a person. A standard middle class family always give priority for own vehicle. People through different ways purchase vehicle and one of the most important sources of purchasing vehicle is by availing loan facility other than ready cash payment. Today a vehicle is a necessity more than a luxury. Even school students use two wheelers. The most used vehicle in a family all over the world are cars. There is a large sector of consumers of cars who use the cars on rental basis. Prime concern is given to people who have own car or vehicle that is not within their service due to several reasons. The car owners sometimes cannot use their damaged cars given for repair or service and owners who wait for insurance compensation mostly use the facility of rental car services. Some agencies give other vehicles like van or trucks on rental basis depending on the customer regarding the need and size of the vehicle.

Mostly the rented cars are not used for a longer period. There will be a stipulated period for the usage of the car and it has to be returned after the expiry of the rented period. The car or the automobile rental is normally undertaken by agencies. Each agency will have different local branches in the most important places in cities and towns where there is a high demand for rented cars. Usually rented cars are used for a shorter period of certain hours to few weeks or months. Many agencies provide online website reservation for the assigned vehicles for rent. Most of the branches of the agencies are located near railway stations, airports and busy city areas. This facility near the busy city areas are mainly focused on travelers particularly foreign travelers.

There are several methods for rental of the car. Some agencies provide additional features of GPS navigation systems, entertainment systems insurance and use of mobile phones and internet service. The vehicle is given for rent for a stipulated period for a fixed rent or fee. The fee might be fixed on rent basis or for lease. There is also a re purchase program as a buy back guaranteed price. There purchase method is with the manufacturer agreeing for a price that is not the original price at the time of resale of the vehicle after the expiry of the rental period. After the expiry of the rental period the vehicles are given in the re used vehicle market. This is usually done with the second hand or used vehicle market dealers by the rental car agencies after the expiry of the rental car agreement.

Various conditions are defined in the rental agreement that may change from place to place.  A valid driving license for the divers assigned in the rent car agencies is the basic and compulsory requirement. The term of the car used on rent basis also varies according to the need of the customers and the agreement between the dealer and the customer.

There are specific speed limits defined in the agreement. Some agencies use the GPS for speed limit that shouldn’t exceed the maximum speed limit. The quantity of fuel used is also specified in rental agreement. In developed countries renewable fuel vehicles are used. Credit cards are most often used by the rental car agencies. The credit cards are used as security to impose additional fees if any damage happens to the vehicle during the rental agreement period.

There are several types of insurance coverage available. Loss damage waiver, supplemental liability insurance, personal accident insurance, personal effects coverage and excess insurance are the most used types of insurance provided for the rent a car customer.

The rent a car supplemental service is really a great alternative for people who have usage of the vehicle for a short period.

Biking

Bikes are the most used vehicle by common people. Bike was earlier a developed version of bicycles. A cycle does not require any fuel other than the physical effort of cycling by the bicycle rider. After the introduction of motor vehicles that worked with fuels the bicycle usage were reduced to a great extent. The usages of cycles were limited to short travels and exercise. By this time motor cycles that were the improved forms of bicycles became the common mans vehicle. Today bikes that are used by fuel with advance technologies and features are used in a great number by the youth. In urban or in a thickly populated areas bikes are most widely used by students and middle class people.

There is another category of people who use bike for hobbies. Bike riding is also an expensive sport. There are several organizations and institutions that promotes bike racing. The bike with additional features that promotes maximum speed and mileage covering is the most popular trend among the youth today. Even the college students use the bikes with high technology and features. The designs, models and mileage are the highly sought features of an average customer before the purchase of bike. If a customer uses the bike for necessities another category of people use the bike for the sake of entertainment and pleasure. Bike racing and bike mountaineering are the most expensive hobbies and sports involved in biking.

Mountain biking is one of riskiest sport that is quite popular in USA. The bike used for mountain biking is different in many ways from the normal bike. It has several additional features incorporated in the base model of a bike. The main challenge before mountain bike rider is his ability to ride the bike in the toughest terrain. The rough climatic conditions in the mountain region are another challenge before the mountain bike rider.

There are different categories of mountain biking. Cross country, down hill, free ride, slope style and dirt jumping and trials are some of them. The history of the mountain biking is traced back to 1800 when the soldiers from Missoula, Montana to Yellowstone and back in the year 1896 used the off road route on modified bicycles that were the earlier version of today’s racing and mountaineering bikes. During 1900 the bike riders used to take road rides on bike as a part of keeping up the physical fitness during the winter time.

The mountain biking got a great exposure and became a mainstream activity during the 1990’s and 2000. The most important feature of a mountain bike is its gear that helps the bike rider to climb and cover the rough ad tough terrains and mountains. Those were available in the initial stages in selected out lets. By the beginning of 2000 the mountain bike gears were available in the standard bike accessories and part shops. It was amazing to watch that the mountain bike gears and disc brakes were begun to be sold through all malls and department stores. Other accessories are the helmets that protect the head of the rider and also the face of the rider from the obstacles before him while climbing the mountain. The body armor and pads protect the rider from limbs of the rider from any unexpected crash of the bile while climbing the mountain.

Another important accessory is the first aid kit that is carried by every bike rider because risk of injury is an unavoidable factor in the life of a bike rider. It is a quite evident fact that a bike rider is a person who is having a mind of adventure and immense confidence in facing all the hindrances in this dangerous yet entertaining sport.

Auto Navigation System

Navigation is defined as the path or direction finding of a vehicle in motion. During olden time navigation system in the primitive forms were used to identify the direction of ships or vessels in the sea. The direction of sailing ships and vessels in the sea were identified by the help of wind movements, the rise and position of sun, moon and stars. Later with the advent of modern technologies, advanced navigation systems were introduced. These systems began to be used widely for the vehicles in the road, air and vessels in the water. The systems used the automotive navigation is basically focused on identifying the exact direction and location of a vehicle.

Satellite navigation system is the most advanced navigation system used today. Global positioning or GPS system is the most widely used satellite navigation system Before the invention of the advanced GPS device the auto navigation process were in its initial stages of experimenting process in the production of navigational devices. The technologies for automobile navigation were available from the year 1970 onwards with the advent of micro processor and computer software programs. Color digital road maps and CD-ROMS for digital map storage was the identified programs used during 1980’s. The accuracy of software programs in the identification of locations was vague. In order to compensate this drawback research in the development of new technologies resulted in the invention of GPS system.

 In the year 1990 Mitsubishi and electric claimed their right over first GPS based navigation system. The GPS device is used for locating the place in the map programmed or installed in the GPS system. The data base of road direction, location, the distance of the automobile covered etc are easily identified by the GPS device. In the year 1995 GPS installed car was introduced by Oldsmobile. Olds mobile GPS installed navigation car was branded as Guide star.

The technology used in the auto navigation systems strictly have the certain features that cannot be avoided in the GPS. The Bird’s Eye view for the satellite map for finding exact locations, top view of the map that always corresponds with up direction with the forward direction of the vehicle, for the rotating map linear gauge for distance, voice prompts, numbers for distance schematic programs are the essential components for the GPS installed in a car or other automobile. The road data base, Map format, media, real time data, integration and other functions are the other major features in a GPS.

The road data base should contain the geographical features, street numbers, house numbers, land marks, distances covered, and way directions. The communications should be through WI-FI connected to internet in busy cities and towns for easy updated connection. Geographic co-ordination for parking spaces and fuel stations should be stored for proper direction.

The map formats are other important features. The base map is used in standard GDF format. This GDF format is later converted into CD_ ROM in the navigation system. Another format is CARIN or CDF data base format. The only format that imposed royalty fee is the SDAL map format used by several clients like Microsoft, Magellan, Pioneer, Panasonic, and Clarion even though SDAL is not having a wide acceptance.

PSF is the physical storage format. Certain GPS device makers provide free map updates through their website stored in the ROM that can be converted to CD or down load through WI-FI connection computer or Bluetooth. Real time data or other integrated functions including LCD screens, mobile phones, SMS and personal information for management meetings are the other important features in Auto navigation system.

The major draw back in auto navigation systems are the loss of signals in metros or in any remote areas. There are alternative navigation systems smart phones with GPS.

The Auto navigation systems even though with the limitation of loss of signals at times may be used for several other purposes like detection of vehicles that involved in crimes or for any official and personal purposes.

Auto Leasing

Motor vehicle is a highly necessary object in this fast moving world. The want to reach in places before time prompts every one including a wide sector of population of professionals, Employees and students promotes buying and selling of vehicles. From a simple two wheeler to trend setter luxurious vehicles dominates the automobile industry. Financial institutions also encourages the buying and selling of vehicles under different schemes. Basically loan facilities are available for owning a vehicle. Most of the employees particularly government employees avail the facilities of loan from various financial institutions including loan schemes form nationalized banks. The problem occurs when a default payment occurs. At this point of time legal proceedings will be initiated. A practical solution for this is the auto leasing or vehicle leasing.

Auto leasing is the usage of vehicle or any automobile for period of fixed period or tenure. The vehicle or auto dealers found this option or alternative for vehicle purchase. Instead of owning vehicle for ready purchase or loan a vehicle can be bought for a fixed period of four to five years. Certain formalities need to be complied before vehicle leasing. Under the agreement of lease the vehicle hired for the period of agreement for three to four years need to returned after the stipulated period of lease agreement. Leasing of a vehicle is profitable and having low risk factor to both the buyer and the seller.

A buyer can have lease payments that is much lesser to the loan repayment amount and the for the bulk amount required for the buying of vehicle for instant cash. The buyer need not to anxious about the future value of the vehicle like a vehicle owner. He can return the vehicle after the expiry of the lease agreement and can get a new vehicle entering into a new agreement. The tax exemptions are also available for the leased vehicle. A buyer is always freed from the anxiety of the resale value of the vehicle.

From the perspective of the seller the vehicle leasing is profitable at the same time his ownership on the vehicle will not be taken off. Another advantage of leasing is that the original owner after the expiry of the primary lease agreement may enter into another lease or he can sell the vehicle as vehicle re-marketing. Another added advantage is that the lease agreement is only for a shorter period and more new customers will enter in to leasing after the expiry of the lease with one customer.

There are several types of vehicle leasing. Hire purchase, installment payments, hiring for business purposes, novated lease or where a new clause of lease or hiring is incorporated in the lease agreement, personal contract purchase are some of the widely accepted auto leasing. The main characteristic of auto leasing is the time limit or tenure of vehicle usage mentioned in the lease agreement. Every lease agreement between the buyer and the seller need to be executed at the presence of witness. In some form of lease agreement collateral security is also given to the seller. Other main clauses that stipulated in the lease agreement are the termination fee and limit of number of mileage the buyer can use. The seller or the dealers are very particular in the use of mileage of the vehicle with in agreement term. For cars 10,000 miles per annum can be used by the buyer even though amount for 12,000 to 15,000 is incorporated in the lease deed. This clause is entered in the agreement as a pre caution from the part of the seller as a security against any damage caused by the buyer during the lease period. If there is a usage of higher mileage higher mileage fees will be charged. A maintenance clause for vehicle running cost is also incorporated in the lease excluding insurance and fuel.

On the whole auto lease provide many advantages for a buyer who wants a vehicle for a short period with validity and can be free from other complexities of purchase loan for vehicles.


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