Category Archives: Communication

(PDS) Protective distribution system: An Overview

(PDS) Protective distribution system is Government US term for fibre optics telecommunication or wireline system. This includes physical safeguards, terminals and electromagnetic, electrical and acoustical adequate safeguards for permitting usages for classified information’s unencrypted transmissions. Earlier such systems had been known “approved circuits”. Complete PDS includes terminal and subscriber equipment and lines interconnecting.

Distribution hardened: Carrier hardened: In this PDS, there is cabling of data. There is installation in (EMT) electrical material tubing, ridged steel sheet ducting or ferrous conduit or pipe’s carrier constructions. All hardened carrier system’s connections are sealed permanently completely about all surfaces with different sealants, welds or epoxy. If carrier hardened has been buried under ground, there is security of cables being running in between buildings. Carriers which contain cables are encased in concretes. Along with carrier hardened systems, detections are accomplished through human inspection which needs periodical performance. So, hardened carrier is installed above flooring or below ceilings. They can do inspection visually for ensuring no occurrence of intrusions. (PVIs) periodic visual inspection occurs at frequencies being dependent on threat levels to environments, data security classification and area accessing control. Carrier alarmed: As alternatives to conductance of inspection human visually, PDS alarmed carrier is constructed for automating process of inspection by means of monitoring electronically with alarm systems. In PDS Carrier Alarmed, carrier systems are “alarmed” with optical fibres specialized deployment inside conduit for purposes of acoustic sensing vibrations which occurs usually when intrusions are attempted on conduits for gaining accessibility to cables. PDS alarmed carrier in turn offer many benefits over PDS hardened carrier: There is provision of monitoring continuously 24/7/365. There is elimination of requirement of locking down the manhole covers. There is elimination of needed visual periodic inspections. There is enability of rapid redeployment for evolution of arrangements of network. There is allowance of carriers being hidden below floors or above ceiling, because there is no necessity of PVIs. There is elimination of concrete outdoor encasement necessity. There is elimination of necessity for epoxying and welding of connections.

Viewed carrier continuously: PDS continuously carrier viewed are ones that are under observations continuously, that is, 24 hours in 1 day which includes when operational. These circuits are together grouped. But they must be separated from non-continuous viewed circuits which ensure vision’s open fields. Order standing includes investigation requirements of PDS disturbed attempts. Apt security personnel must conduct area investigation of penetration attempted inside discovery’s 15 minutes. This hardened carrier types are used not for special category or Top Secret information from non-US UAA. This UAA means Uncontrolled Access Area. A definition includes (RAA) Restricted Access Area and (CAA) Controlled Access Area. (SR) Secure Room thereby offers high protection degrees. Distribution simply: PDSs simple distributions is afforded levels reduced of protection security physically when compared to PDS hardened distributions. They thereby use carrier simple systems. Means following are acceptable under NSTISSI 7003: Cables of data must be having carrier installation. Access points and joints must be controlled and secured by personnel being cleared to high data levels being having PDS handling. Carriers could be having any material construction (examples are ferrous conduit, wood, EMT and PVT). Carriers are inspected with respect to required factors of NSTISSI 7003.

Description: PDS purposes are detecting, determining and making tough accessibilities physically to lines of communication whilst carrying information about national security. Specification is known as National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems security Instruction (NSTISSI) 7003. This had been issued by Committee on National Security Systems in year 1996 month December. Approval guidance, authorities, and standards for maintenance, design and installation for PDS have been provided to vendors and contractors of US government agencies.

Personal Area Network (PAN) – Its types and Working

Personal Area Network (PAN) is computer networks needed for data transmission amongst devices like personal digital assistants, computers and telephones. PANs are used for communications amongst intrapersonal communication (personal devices themselves) or for connection of high levelled network and internet (an uplink). (WPAN) Wireless Personal Area Network is PAN being carried over wireless technology of network like Bluetooth, IrDA, Z-Wave, Body Area Network, INSTEON, ZigBee, and Wireless USB. WPAN reaches varies to few metres from few centimetres. PAN is carried also over wired buses of computers like FireWire and USB. Connection of Wired PAN: Data cables are examples of Wired PAN connections. It is Personal Area Network because this connection is for personal use of users. PAN has being used for only personal uses.

Connection of Wireless Personal Area Network: (WPAN) is PAN of wireless kind. It is network for inter-connection of devices being centred on individual workspace of person. In this, connections must be wireless. The Wireless PANs are based on standard IEEE 802.15. 2 kinds of technologies being wireless and being used for WPANs are Infrared Data Association and Bluetooth. WPAN serves interconnecting all ordinary communicating and computing devices which many people carry with themselves or have on desk. It serves more specialized purposes like allowing surgeons and different team members in communicating whilst operations are conducted. Key issues in technologies of WPANs are called “plugging in”. In ideal scenarios, when 2 WPAN equipped devices come close to one another or in close proximity within some metres of one another. Or, within few kilometres of centralized server, they have communications as if having cable connections. Other crucial features are abilities of all devices locking out different selective devices in turn preventing unwanted interferences or accessibility unauthorized to information. WPANs technologies are in their infancy. It is rapidly undergoing development. Operating frequencies proposed is around 2.4GHz in modes digitally. Objectives are facilitating seamless operations amongst business or home systems and devices. All devices in WPANs have abilities of plugging to other devices in similar WPAN. This is possible provided devices are within physical ranges of one and other. Additionally, worldwide WPANs shall remain interconnected. So, for instance, an archaeologist on sites in Greece can use PDAs for accessibility of databases directly at University of Minnesota in Minneapolis and thereby transmitting findings to particular database.

Bluetooth: The Bluetooth uses radio waves of short ranges over distances approximately till 10m. For instance, Bluetooth devices like pointing devices, audio headsets, printers and key boards connect to cell phones, computers or (PDAs) personal digital assistants wirelessly. Bluetooth PAN is called also “piconet”. This is combination of pico and net. Pico stands for very small, may be one trillionth and net stands for network. It is made of eight active devices in relationship of master-slave. Lots of and plenty of devices are connected in “parked” modes. 1st Bluetooth device in piconet is master. Rest all devices are being slaves. The slaves communicate with master. Typically piconet has ranges of 10m or 33 feet. Though ranges to 100m or 330 feet is reached in perfect and ideal circumstances. Infrared Data Association (IrDA): The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) utilizes infrared lights. This has frequencies below sensitivities of human eyes. Infrared (IR) is used generally, for example in remotes of TVs. WPANs devices typically use IrDA. This includes different serial data interfaces, printers and keyboards. WPAN uses Bluetooth technology for connecting all things from ear pieces and cell phones to desktops and keyboards.

When question of wireless arises people thinks about Wi-Fi hot spots or wireless routers. The Bluetooth acts such as wire wireless which connects short distant components.

Technology of VoIP and its working

VoIP term refers to transference of Voice over Internet Protocol (IP) of TCP/IP suite of protocol. By using technology of “VoIP” we make traditional calls of telephones from phone or computer to other phone or computer either. We use Internet (that is packet switched network) and public switched telephone network (PSTN) both. All that is required is connection of Internet for VoIP. Technology like this changes all things really because it permits people for receiving phone calls from any place where there is existence of connection of internet. This is just in similar ways as for you could receive emails of yours in any place where you have internet connection.

“Technology of VoIP” term covers wide ranges of technology which includes fax-over-IP services too. This is carried over private IP based network and internet networks both. VoIP are parts of packet voices. This includes frame relay networks and voice-over-asynchronous-transmission-mode (ATM). These run faster than IP but are less prevalent. VoIP has connection across combination of PC, web based telephones and phones. These are connected by means of public lines of telephones for remote gateways of voices. Since, information passes through in discrete packets, therefore there is no need of relying on continuous switched circuit available. By taking use of VoIP we could enhance data and voice services in single network. End user devices (called also client devices) are referred normally as VoIP phones being used in VoIPs. “VoIP Phone” development requires “system on a chip” development. This combines associated logic of glues, (DSP) digital signal processing functions, telephone user interface, and analog interface and (MCU) micro-controller functions.

VoIP working: Steps basically involved in origination of VoIP calls are: Conversion of voice analog signal to formats digitally. Translation and compression of signals to packets of Internet protocol (IP) for internet transmission. Reversal of process at receiving ends. Switching formats digitally back to analog such that telephone calls go across as normal. Calls of VoIP originate on whatever lines of broadband like wireless, coaxial cable, satellite even or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). Routing calls to VoIP Company. In this place computer converts sounds to packets of data. It is same as packets utilized for transferring internet data like emails. Data is send by packets. This is more efficient far because it enables similar lines. It handles simultaneously more information. Packets of data are sent by means of any multiple network of internet to call’s recipient. Caller receives call. This is done through local carrier of phone, provider wireless or provider broadband. For understanding VoIP it is important for having complete knowledge of differences in between packet switching and circuit switching. Normal telephones use circuit switching for calls over phones. It involves call routing by means of switches at local carriers to person being called. 2 point connection in both directions is called circuit. Differently, packet switching is very efficient in transmission of data. Small data amounts known as packets are sent from 1 system to other. In systems of VoIP, once party in question answers, voice is transmitted by conversion of voice to digitized form. Then segment voice signals to packet stream. 1st step in the process is conversion of voiced analog signals to digital by using analog-digital converter. As because voice digitized needs large bits numbers, compression algorithms are used for reducing volumes of transmitted data. Next, samples of voice have to be inserted to packets of data for carrying on internet. Voice packets protocols are Real time Transport Protocol (RTP) typically. Packets of RTP have header fields specially holding data required for correct re-assemblence of packets to voice signals on other ends. Security and scalability are key issues.

Packet Cable – Its technical Overview and Deployments

Packet Cable is consortium and association of industry being founded by CableLabs with goals of standard definition for modem cable television industry accessibilities. CableLabs in turn leads these initiatives for interface interoperability specifications for delivering multimedia real time services over 2 way cable networks. It is built on top of industry’s cable modem Data over Cable Service Interface Specifications (DOCSIS) infrastructure. Packet Cable network uses (IP) Internet Protocol for enabling wide ranges of services of multimedia like interactive gaming, (IP telephony) Voice over IP, multimedia general applications and multimedia conferencing. DOCSIS networks with Packet Cable Network extensions enable cable operators delivering voice and data traffic using efficiently single high speeded (QoS) quality-of-service cable broadband enabled architecture. Packet Cable Network efforts date back to 1997 year when cabling operators identify needs for multimedia real time architectures. This supports modern multimedia services delivery over architecture of DOCSIS. Packet Cable Network has original specifications on basis of network physical characteristics of operators in US for European market, EuroPacketCable on basis of European implementations of network and Cable Europe Labs for maintaining separate by equivalent efforts.

Overview technically: Packet Cable Network interconnects 3 networks namely Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), TCP/IP Managed IP Networks and Hybrid Fibre Coaxial (HFC) Access Network. Packet Cable Network protocols: There should be (RTCP) Real Time Control Protocol and (RTP) Real time Transport Protocol needed for media transfers. There should be PSTN Gateway Call Signalling Protocol Specification (TGCP) that is MGCP extensions for Media Gateways. There should be Network based Call Signalling Protocol Specification (NCS) that is MGCP extensions for residential analog Media Gateways. NCS specification is derived from IETF MGCP RFC 2705 with details of VoIP signalling. IETF versions are basically NCS version’s subset. Packet Cable groups have defined more features and messages than IETF. There should be Common Open Policy Service (COPS) for Quality of Service. There should be DOCSIS standards for data over cables and details on RF bands mostly. Packet Cable Voice Codecs per Packet Cable Codec Specifications: Required things are ITU G.711 for V 1.0 and V1.5 (a-law and micro-law both), iLBC for V1.5 and BV16 for V1.5. Recommended things are ITU G.729 Annex E and ITU G.728. There can be any optional things.

PacketCable 1.0: This PacketCable 1.0 comprises of 6 technical reports and 11 specifications. It defines Quality of Service (QoS), call signalling, interconnection of Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Codec, interfaces of security, billing message collections of events and client provisioning needed for implementing single zone’s PacketCable solutions for (IP) Internet Protocol residential voice services. PacketCable 1.5: This PacketCable 1.5 has capabilities additionally not existing in PacketCable 1.0. It supersedes versions previously namely V1.1, V1.3 and V1.2. PacketCable 1.5 consists of 1 technical report and 21 specifications. It defines together Quality of Service (QoS), call signalling, interconnection of Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Codec, interfaces of security, billing message collections of events and client provisioning needed for implementing multi zone’s or single zone’s PacketCable solutions for (IP) Internet Protocol residential voice services. PacketCable 2.0: This PacketCable 2.0 introduces IMS Release 7 IP Multimedia Subsystem to architectural cores. Packet Cable thereby uses IMS simplified in few areas in turn enhancing it in few cable specific places. Packet Cable defines Delta Specs being related with very important IMS Specs from 3GPP.

Deployment: VoIP services are based on architecture of PacketCable widely being deployed by operators like Cogeco: Cogeco Home Phone (Canada), Time Warner Cable: Digital Phone (System wide), Cox: Cox Digital Telephone (System Wide), Bright House Networks (Florida), GCI (Alaska), Optus- SingTel Optus Pty Ltd (Australia), Liberty Cablevision (Puerto Rico) and Comcast: Comcast Digital Voice System wide).

A Brief Introduction about Generic Access Network (GAN) Technology

Generic Access Networks is used in systems of telecommunications by users of cellular device to interact and connect with different types of devices of communication. Evolution of GAN protocols was done for communication systems that are wireless thereby allowing performance of functions by mobile phones. These functions are seamlessly between WANs and WLANs, which does not interrupt the communication session.

Now-a-days GAN technology gives permission to the subscriber to do interaction via data, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), voice and IP multimedia subsystem application.

Service of dual-mode handset enables subscribers of mobile phones to hand over seamless connections between wireless WANs and LANs. This service is the key function of technology of GAN. This feature is quite enhanced because the seamless roaming thereby allows connection of users with people across the 7 seas at a cost that is low by the use of handset devices.

Cell phone structure is changed. This is use of technology of GAN. All phones have two transceivers because GAN has the involving of 2 accessible modes. One is to cover Wi-Fi that is application advanced. Other is used for cellular service that is conventional.

Network Access Point (NAP): Internet service providers (ISPs) connect with each other while arrangement peering through NAP. This technology made its transition from network that is government funded to a one that is commercial in the internet’s early days.

Internet Protocol (IP): In the Internet layer of Internet Protocol Suite, IP is the most important protocol. suite is the communication protocol’s set which consist of 4 layers namely Link layer (Lowest), Internet Layer, Transport Layer ad Application Layer (Highest). Important task and purpose of IP is datagrams delivery from source computer (source host) to receiving computer (destination host). For achieving this factor, IP includes structures and methods to put tags within datagrams. This process is called Encapsulation.

Limitations of GAN are also present inspite of its advantages. Subscriber service of GAN is interference prone because unlicensed mobile access uses many varieties of frequencies. Use of many signals of WAN and LAN via GAN are too costly and reduces talk-time.

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