Marriage is a very important factor that constitutes a family life. Beyond all regional or linguistic variations marriage is the accepted standard to live together and to have a family by the society. It is considered as the togetherness of two families. In India marriage is considered as a sacrament and in arranged marriages the man and the woman do not get an opportunity to communicate with each other in the olden times. They used to know each other after their marriage. To know each other before the marriage was forbidden in many conservative communities. This was considered as a tradition till recent past. The changes in the world do affect the relationships also. Youngsters today who were educated than their earlier generation have new innovative and open thoughts about the relationships and the concept of marriage. They emphasis on knowing each other before entering in to a life long relationship. They insist on having a courtship with their prospective partner to know the suitability of the relationship.
The definition of dating differs from country to country and culture to culture. Dating has several meaning in relation to both physical and mental attributes between two persons. The evolution of culture form the dark ages to the modern civilized world had gone through substantial changes in the man- woman relationship. It has definite impact in the man-woman relationship if the history is traced back. There are changes at times to an unimaginable degree in the relationship between man and woman due to several factors. The technological advancement, personal liberty, competitive mentality all affects the relationships. The intention to have a distinguished position in the society to a certain level weakens the bond of relationships.
In Europe during the Middle Ages a marriage was considered as business arrangement between families. The likes and dislikes of the partners were not taken into account. Partners who do have the same wave length in the thoughts and actions were compelled to live together for the sake of continuing a family life to have a respectable position in the society. Women suffered mostly in this social condition. Procreation of children and the consideration of family status was their prime concern.
Even though dating has different meanings in different society there are certain positive aspects in dating. The chance or possibility to know the behavior pattern of the spouse to certain extent can be identified during the dating period. There is also the choice of freedom to drop the relationship if the partners find it hard to continue. The dark side of dating is it is mostly done by teenagers rather than partners who intend to get married. The teenagers are usually subject to many types of exploitation including physical, mental and emotional exploitations. Partners with a matured mental condition may not believe in exploiting each other. This may not be plight of partners involved in dating. The intensity of treachery or cheating is higher in dating. The traditional dating is considered as going on public outing by the partners. Today the outing or spending time together has a wide perspective where the nature of relationship may result in bad state that will only create negativity in the mind of the partners.
In western societies dating is advisable to a greater extent where the divorce rate is higher. The technical attitude of dating is if it is found that two persons find that they cant get long together they can end the relation without extending it to a forced arranged married life.
It is not a forgettable fact that the beauty of relationship is in the unconditional love between a man and woman whether it is in dating or in an arranged marriage. Unfortunately dating and marriages are common but unconditional love is an antique piece in the modern world.
Society has as set of rules and standards that is pursued by the people for having a disciplined life. The rules and standards create law which is a higher level of discipline. The law helps the people to be conscious about their responsibilities and duties. A citizen of a country must be dutiful towards him and to others. The ultimate aim of a law system is to provide justice and to maintain peaceful life among the people in a society. The welfare of the citizens is the prime concern of a legal system. When there is a breach occurs in the peaceful life by an illegal activity law gives the proper remedy for it through various mode of punishment or warning. When there is a threat to the life of a person through an illegal activity it amounts to crime. A crime occurs when a bodily injury is inflicted on a person by another. This infliction of bodily injury is regarded as criminal act. A person who commits the criminal activity is termed as a criminal. There are broader aspects of crime depends on the intensity of the criminal activity done. Minor injuries that occur from tiff between people are categorized as minor offences. At the same time if a bodily injury results in grievous physical deformity that makes a person unable to live a normal life it is considered as major or serious criminal offences. The most serious criminal activity that renders the capital punishment of death sentence is murder. There are several elements that constitute a criminal activity from a criminal.
A scientific branch of study in the behavior of a criminal is termed as criminology. The circumstances or the various factors that made a criminal to do a crime are thoroughly studied through different scientific process in criminology. Criminology is followed mainly by sociologists, psychiatrists, psychological counselors, social anthropologists, investigating officers and social rehabilitation centres. During mid 18th century and the 20th century the school of thoughts developed the concepts of criminology. The scientific study of nature, cause, result or the extent and depth of a criminal activity done by a criminal was studied carefully in the school of thoughts in a limited scope in the earlier studies. The basics of criminology found in the school of thoughts were developed in various forms in the contemporary criminological studies. The criminology emphasis in the exact elements that constituted the crime. It is found that from the genetics to the social circumstances instigates the person to commit a crime. The psychological factors are the other UN avoidable prominent elements that results in a crime. Sudden provocation and mental disability are the mostly found major characteristics in a criminal. Sociologists and philanthropists give emphasis on the several measures to be taken to reform a criminal abstaining him from doing a criminal activity. People who have committed a crime accidentally without any intention for committing such an offence may be reformed to a certain extent. Several psychological counseling processes are required to reform such people to bring them back to the normal life.
The crimes that occur in a society is prevented by giving the offender the apt punishment that will be an exemplary act and warning that to a certain extent prevents others to commit such crimes. This punishment theory is applicable for heinous crimes committed by an offender. Such a criminal with heinous mentality cannot be reformed through normal psychological aspects. The legislation for giving strict punishments for inhuman criminal activities definitely serves as a serious warning to the anti social elements in a society. A person who commits a crime intentionally does not deserve the sympathy or caring from a society. The most apt theory for heinous criminals is the biblical theory of “Eye for Eye and tooth for tooth.”
A celebration is always a time of happiness. All over the world people have celebrations in different ways. Different countries have different cultures and traditions. Most of the celebrations are based on the tradition, culture, custom and life style of the people. As an exception there are certain celebrations that are celebrated by the people all over the world. Christmas is such a celebration that is celebrated by people all over the world even though it is a traditional Christian religious festival. The birth of Jesus Christ is being memorized and celebrated by the Christmas time. There are regional variations in celebrating Christmas but the essence of Christmas is same every where it is being celebrated. In the European countries where Christian population is higher considers the month of December as the Christmas holiday time. The preparation for the Christmas time starts in the western form the last weeks of November. In most countries Christmas celebration lasts till the month of January.
Churches and Christian houses will start the preparation from the end of the November onwards. There will be religious fasting of 25 days on the beginning of December that will end on the Christmas Eve. During these times Christmas stars will be put on every house. The hanging of stars symbolizes the Christmas star that rose at Bethlehem when Jesus Christ was born. The decoration of houses and churches are an important factor that relates to Christmas. Accessories for the celebration are available during the Christmas shopping time. Christmas shopping time is the peak season for sales of Christmas gifts. The Christmas gift exchange is an inevitable popular tradition that relates to Christmas. Gifts of different things of different size and shapes are available during Christmas season. The retail sector market sales will be higher than any other period during this time. The Christmas gift manufacturing companies and shops targets at the holiday shopping season form the late week of November till the end of January.
In USA Christmas holiday shopping season begins after the Thanks giving day. An average house spent more than $ 1700 or above for Christmas shopping. The greeting and gift cards are most widely being purchased by the people. Next to greeting cards is the Christmas tree decorating accessories. The fancy items wrapped in attractive gift papers of different forms are brought by the kids. The small fancy structures of Christmas trees, balls, stars, bells, decorative lights, Santa clause and other decorative items are the special features of Christmas seasons. The crib making accessories are the other attraction of Christmas. The statues of Joseph and Mary, shepherds, sheep, stars, angels, crib and baby Jesus Christ are the most sought things during Christmas shopping. Streets and shops will provide extra sales counters and sections exclusively for shopping Christmas things.
The food is another attraction of Christmas time. Christmas cakes and wine are made in large quantities. The preparation of traditional cake and wine begins a month earlier of December. The Christmas food streets will be filled with many types of cakes and wines. Christmas is not completed with a good festive meal. Meat, soup, puddings and other varieties of deserts are the main attraction on Christmas Eve. Street shopping is the main attraction of every Christmas season. Online shopping was begun in the year 2005 and before December 25 the online purchase reaches its peak. The credit card facilities and free gift coupons and cards make the online shopping to have an increased sales graph than any other month of a year. Christmas shopping is indeed an experience that brings joy in every house. A day of Christmas celebration gives memorable bonding within the family and society that makes people to look forward for another joyous time in the forth coming year.
In every religion, the creation of human being is described as a divine activity of God almighty who is worshiped in different forms in different places all over the world. In the Holy Bible it is quite clearly stated that man was created in the same image of God almighty and God is within every creation he made. Human beings are always considered as superior to other living things as it is widely believed that human beings is the true representation of God with his powers. Even though its is considered that the basic physical and mental structure of human are the same, a phenomenon that was widespread from time immemorial always segregated man from his own fellow beings in the name of color, caste and creed. The discrimination on the base of color is a dominant social handicap that existed and still at a nominal way exists in different parts of the world.
One of the historic incident or social trauma that happened from a time that couldn’t be traced back exactly was the slavery system. Ancient people lived in groups or communities and within their communities the strongest one became the master of other members. Later the group leader was considered as the superior and others were considered as inferior to him. Gradually several classifications were made in the group. In order to the physical appearance a sector of people were considered as slaves. Unfortunately their skin color was black. The fair complexioned people considered themselves to be superior to the dark ones. According to them dark complexioned people were considered as low that they are only created to serve the fair people. Historians state that the fight to impose superiority in the name of color marked the beginning of slavery in the history of mankind.
It was the popular belief that black people do not have any feelings or emotions like the fair people. The best example is the slavery system that existed in Africa and Europe. The colonies of Britain in African nations made the native black people of Africa as their salves for doing all jobs that needed heavy physical labor. The body characteristics of a black person is his physical strength that was suitable for doing all hard works that required physical strength. This feature was exploited by the British people. They were exploited to an extent where they were treated at many times a status lower than animals. They were ill treated without providing proper food and other amenities. They were collectively called as Negro. A common life was not permissible for them. They were restricted form entering to public places, restaurants or in any function or celebrations. Gradually this discrimination phase changed when strong personalities came up from this community who questioned the authority of fair people on black ones. They protested strongly against this discrimination. Many calamities and chaos broke as a result of the protest of the black people in several British and American Colonies. After many brave black people became martyrs the black people began to reap the fruit of their protests by getting equal status, dignity and freedom.
In US many African- American personalities began to be the determining factors in the social, political and economic arena of US. In the year 1926 a tribute paid to all eminent African American personalities was created by celebrating second week of February as Negro history week.
In the year 1976 the Black History week was expanded as Black History month. Black history month was celebrated for the first time in the year 1987 in UK. The intention of this thought was to pay tribute to the black race that wrote and shape the history of a nation through their struggle, hardships and above all their dignity.