Category Archives: Electronics

Neuromorphic Engineering and its Scope

Neuromorphic Engineering is called Neuromorphic Computing also. This is concept that had attained its development by Carver Mead in 1980s which provides description to usage of VLSI (very large-scale integration) systems that contain analog electronic circuits to neuro-biological mimic architectures available in nervous system.  Presently neuromorphic term means description of digital, mixed-mode, and analog software and VLSI systems which cause implementation of neutral model systems for motor control, multi-sensory integration and perception.

Key aspect is to understand how a person’s neurons morphology, overall architectures and circuit cause creation of computation desirable. It creates affecting robustness damage influences, facilitating change evolutionary, incorporating development and learning, representation of information and adaption of plasticity or change locally.

It is subject that is interdisciplinary new which takes encouragement from physics, computer science, electronic engineering, biology, and mathematics for designing neutrals artificial systems like eye-head systems, autonomous robots, vision systems and auditory processors whose design architecture and physical principles have basis on system of biological nervous.

Hardware of neuromorphic computer is Neurogrid board that is built at Stanford University by Brains in Silicon Group. In 2011 November MIT researcher group caused creation of 1st computer chip which mimics ion-based, analog communication in synapse in between 2 neurons by usage of 400 transistors and CMOS standard techniques of manufacturing. In 2012 June Purdue’s Spintronic Researchers made paper presentation on neuromorphic chip design by usage of memristors and lateral spin valves. Argument is there that design of architecture works in same method to neurons and is used for testing numerous methods of reproduction of ability of processing of brain. They are more efficient energy-wise significantly than chips that are conventional.

HP Labs Researcher on Mott memristors show that they being non-volatile, behaviour of volatility has temperature exhibition below significantly temperature of phase transition which is exploited for neuristor fabrication which is inspired device biologically which behaviour mimics has neuron findings. In 2013 September there is presentation of simulations and models showing how behaviour spiking of neuristors by usage of components formed needing a Turing machine.

Project research together with neuromorphic engineering implications is Human Brain Project. There is collaboration of 10 years for simulation attempts for human brain completely in super computer by usage of data biologically. It is prepared of researcher group in medicine, computing and neuroscience. Co-director of project namely Henry Markram was beginner of that project. He established proposition of novice foundation for understanding and exploring diseases of brain. He used this knowledge for building new technologies of computing. 3 important goals of project is understanding better how brain pieces work and fit together, understanding how to treat and diagnose objectively diseases of brain and usage of human brain understanding for development of neuromorphic computers. Human brain complete simulation takes super computers being 1000 times tremendously powerful than present days. So this neuromorphic engineering is a focussing point. $1.3 billion is allocated to project by European Commission.  BRAIN Initiative is other research project with neuromorphic engineering implications.

Neuromemristive systems are one subclass of neuromorphic systems of computing which focuses on usage of memristors for implementing neuroplasticity. Neuromorphic engineering focus on biological mimicking behaviour. Neuromemristive system focusses on abstraction.  Neuromemristive systems replace cortical behaviour of micro circuit details with neural network abstract model.

Industrial Interest:

Intel is challenger in neuromorphic engineering field. Research conducted on chip design of neuromorphic has been condensed in paper. It is called “Proposal for Neuromorphic Hardware Using Spin Devices” which has presentation of concepts for building neuromorphic chip by usage of technologies emerging never before used for similar purpose.  Neurons on basis of spintronics deliver very low powered neuromorphic devices. Intel is player important in this field but chips real-life must exist.

An Introduction to Next-Generation Robotics

First emerging of robots came to existence in 1980s and 1970s. Uses initially of production of robots were not so much efficient. As there was improvement in control systems and robots, workstations of robots became component of standard quality of production of automation (52% of installations of robot in US). Since then they moved into applications that included palletizing, loading, filling and packaging.

Technology has advanced so much that there is new robots age. Next-generation anthropomorphic machines moves beyond warehouses and factories for working besides humans in capacities that are new. In factories robots were steel machines fast-moving, armed articulated cells that were production controlled caged environments for protecting human workers. Robots next-generation worked consequently with counterparts of humans.

Robotics has been evolving from complex, expensive, large robotics industrial towards smaller, safer and inexpensive systems which is friendly people-wise. New robots generation looks not only more humanly but it takes on tasks of humans both in home and workplace.

As per recent information, medium-and small- sized industries are 20 to 200 numbered less likely for usage of robotics than large manufacturing companies in similar fields. This is changing along with safe robots and less costly invention.

 Suppliers of robots like Universal Robots from country of Denmark makes arms of robots which is light having a small envelope of work which is programmed easily and are suited well to small businesses of manufacturing. At $31,000 each and amount equally in setting ups is costly but affordable.

A company based on Boston namely Rethink Robotics markets Baxter that is a 2-armed robot that is stationary which is designed for medium and small sized market of business. Baxter embodies amount significantly of new technologies which is adapted easily for performing assembly and packaging tasks. Joint of robots provide usage to elastic actuator series which enables robot software for controlling force amount exerted by arms at proper time (as in opposition to space location). Therefore Baxter is robot that is safe utmost for humans being around because robots meet resistance unexpected from body parts of humans.

Next-generation robot emergence comes to existence by advances numerous in wide ranges of technologies enabled. This includes amount increasing of sensor technology and computing power that has availability for price given. robots which emulates senses of humans needs to have equipment of sensor arrays for recognition of vision, detection of movement, sound and force resistance and tactile sensing. Sensors provide generation of large information and data amounts which needs on board robots processors for processing for functioning.

Added to advanced processors and sensors researchers of robotics have provided development of ROS (Robot Operating System) which uses method uniformly of message passing between smart sensors and numerous software systems which control numerous systems that are needed for human-like robot function.

Present days robotic systems benefits from AI (Artificial Intelligence) latest modernizations. An AI system of software allows robots for functioning autonomously more and making decisions on basis of encountered situations.

Added to on board robot processors and systems, developers look beyond robot itself for processing and accessing information. Companies resembling Google possess expertise in large data amount dealings which look for Cloud’s computing power for increasing dramatically functionality of robots. Experience draw with autonomous car by Google which accesses huge information amounts which enables understanding of robot’s navigation, functionality, whereabouts and environment accordingly. Cloud is robot’s programs and libraries source which enables figuring out of terrain, images and even shapes.

Advancements rapidly modernizing and growing in technologies of robotics allow usage of expanding across wide application range for both society and industry at large. To increase robots and people there is occupancy of same space for service and work.

Touch Systems: Industrial Solutions, Market Segments and Products

Industrial Solutions of Touch Systems: Commercial: Variety of touch solutions for applications that is commercial is offered by 3M which includes Fitness Equipment, Human Machine Interfaces, Vending and Marine Navigation. Digital Signage: Assortment of Digital out of Home and Digital Signage applications is accommodated by 3M. Gaming: 3M has offerings of new touch solutions for gaming tables, bar top applications and slots. Hospitality and Retail are other Industrial Solutions.

Market Segments of Touch Systems:

  • 3M 42” Multi -Touch Display has supporting On- Screen Collaboration:
  • Engaging multi-user and single-user interaction is enabled by 3M PCT Technology of Multi-Touch which allows 60 finger multi-touch Input with palm rejection.
  • An intuitive, responsive and natural interface is created by 12 millisecond touch response.
  • User experience for advanced and simple gestures is enhanced by anti-stiction surface.
  • Maintaining image quality that is sharp thereby performance of up-close interactions is done by HD resolution that is full with pitch of fine pixel.
  • Keeping clear and crisp the content when users interact is done by 60Hz refresh rate.
  • A good image at all angles can be presented by viewing angle that is ultra-wide.
  • Irrespective of integrated orientation there is presentation by LED backlights of bright, uniform and long-lasting image.
  • Comfortable temperature of touch screen is maintained by thermal system which is advanced.

Products of Touch Systems:

  • 3M materials of battery: Technologies are enabled for reliable performance of battery by the creation of materials for more smaller, long-lasting, safer and powerful batteries.
  • 3M materials for embedded capacitance:
  • Lowering of system costs, facilitating new products and getting fast marketing can be done utilization by design engineers.
  • By lowering discrete capacitor count, reduction of EMI, power bus noise, and impedance and simplification of PCB layout can be done.
  • 3M materials of Surface Finishing and CMP: This helps in increasing improved yields, provision of high quality performance and productivity that is required by the applications.
  • 3M chemicals: Be it for protective coating, protection from fire, precision cleaning or heat transfer, the broad line of unique chemicals have been  designed for meeting toughest challenges.
  • 3M materials for cushioning is a factor too.

A Brief Introduction about Generic Access Network (GAN) Technology

Generic Access Networks is used in systems of telecommunications by users of cellular device to interact and connect with different types of devices of communication. Evolution of GAN protocols was done for communication systems that are wireless thereby allowing performance of functions by mobile phones. These functions are seamlessly between WANs and WLANs, which does not interrupt the communication session.

Now-a-days GAN technology gives permission to the subscriber to do interaction via data, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), voice and IP multimedia subsystem application.

Service of dual-mode handset enables subscribers of mobile phones to hand over seamless connections between wireless WANs and LANs. This service is the key function of technology of GAN. This feature is quite enhanced because the seamless roaming thereby allows connection of users with people across the 7 seas at a cost that is low by the use of handset devices.

Cell phone structure is changed. This is use of technology of GAN. All phones have two transceivers because GAN has the involving of 2 accessible modes. One is to cover Wi-Fi that is application advanced. Other is used for cellular service that is conventional.

Network Access Point (NAP): Internet service providers (ISPs) connect with each other while arrangement peering through NAP. This technology made its transition from network that is government funded to a one that is commercial in the internet’s early days.

Internet Protocol (IP): In the Internet layer of Internet Protocol Suite, IP is the most important protocol. suite is the communication protocol’s set which consist of 4 layers namely Link layer (Lowest), Internet Layer, Transport Layer ad Application Layer (Highest). Important task and purpose of IP is datagrams delivery from source computer (source host) to receiving computer (destination host). For achieving this factor, IP includes structures and methods to put tags within datagrams. This process is called Encapsulation.

Limitations of GAN are also present inspite of its advantages. Subscriber service of GAN is interference prone because unlicensed mobile access uses many varieties of frequencies. Use of many signals of WAN and LAN via GAN are too costly and reduces talk-time.

Why a good number of people like radio in today’s world?

Radio was first introduced to send telegraphic messages linking the land area and the ships. In the First World War radio was used as a medium of communication to interact and give instructions to the military forces. In the nineteen twenties broadcasting started extensively. In the modern world the radio has transformed into different appearances. It is used in wireless networks, mobile communications, etc. Radio is a very good means of communication even though their place has been replaced by the television. Today where most of the people choose television as a best medium of communication radio is still a lively medium for those who live in the remote regions where television is not so common. The importance of radio has not been reduced till date. It is a good medium of entertainment worldwide. A very good number of people like radio in today’s world too. It is mainly because one can take pleasure of radio at any place and at any time. It can be at one’s abode or at his workplace. Such a medium can also be enjoyed when one is at drive. When compared to television or any other medium most of the people like to hear radio at one time or the other. Radio is really a nice medium for marketing one’s object too. In this medium sound is a big thing which can really market one’s product without any difficulty. A person can utilize the medium of radio for their trade and business as the influence of the sound used is truly effective for their marketing. The open and easy accessibility of innovative assistance makes it more remarkable. In such a medium it is easy to discuss about charges. Nothing is usually overblown here. Things are only little puffed up. In contrast to other media radio charges have gone very low.

Though there are many advantages of a medium like radio there are its own disadvantages too. Since there are many different stations available in the radio and each person has his own liking towards one particular station it becomes very important for advertisements to reach people through all these stations. Only if advertising is done through the entire stations one can market his product or make his thoughts reach all persons living in different parts of the world. It is fact that nobody would like any of his programs to be interrupted by an advertisement. Since radio is a medium of sound one can only listen to it. Therefore when marketing is done of a product through radio the advertisement needs to be repeated several times so that it can easily penetrate through the minds of the listeners. Only if it is frequently heard it can remain in the minds and thoughts of the listeners otherwise it would just go away like a small wind. Unlike television no body sits in front of a radio and listens to the programs that are aired on it. They move and most of them listen to radio when they are at work. Therefore one must make a supreme effort in order to get the attention to their ads. One must try hard to make the listeners eavesdrop and comprehend what their advertisement is about. The advertisements are charged according to the areas. Understanding through radio is not as simple as one speaks through their phone. It is slow comparatively. It is also not sometimes as clear as we hear from one’s telephone. Frequencies of stations are different and therefore it need not be always clear. The listeners of radio come under different categories. Each person has different taste and radio is able to get in touch with each and every listener through their special programs. Since radio can personalized it is able to touch people living at different parts of the world at diverse time. One can say that radio is the perfect medium which is able to touch people at work and at home. Radio proffers litheness to advertisers. If we look at the other media we can surely say that one of the cheapest media is the radio. Airtime expense is comparatively less than other media and hence advertisements can be repeated any number of times in a radio. It is therefore a first-rate sustaining means of communication.

Importance of Fitness Equipments

Fitness Equipments

Fitness Equipments

A healthy and fit body is an asset of a person who is health and beauty conscious. In modern time men and woman want to have attractive and pleasing personality. In many professions particularly in the entertainment field looking fit and healthy is an important factor. Most of the celebrities are quite conscious about the value of their personality particularly in their physical appearance. Earlier the concept of body or physical fitness was among the elite class but today even a child is quite aware about body fitness and the methods to be adopted to stay fit.

In olden times people most of the people were engaged in occupation or work that required physical activities. Today many professions particularly in the IT field physical activities are less when compared to other professions that require physical efforts. Due to the working environment where there are less time and opportunities for exercise people rely on mostly on exercise equipments. In certain companies fitness equipments and work out space are provided for the employees. Apart form the professionals patients also need to do moderate exercise for proper functioning of the body. Fitness equipment plays a great role in exercise for every one. There are several types of fitness equipments that are suitable for people according to their need.

The fitness or exercise equipments are defined as the apparatus or devices for the enhancement of the physical activity. The exercise equipments strengthen and condition the exercise activity for extracting the maximum benefit from the exercise to the person who is doing it. An exercise routine helps to improve the body functions by eliminating body toxins and there by ensure health. If followed regularly it will bring great changes in the appearance of the person. The proper usage of an exercise or fitness equipment is an important factor in following the exercise routine. An improper usage of these equipments may have adverse effects. Mishandling the equipment may result in injuries from simple to serious injuries. Extreme injuries occurred from the improper usage of fitness equipments might result in the death of the person.

There are several types of fitness equipment used for various purposes. The most popularly used fitness equipments are strength training equipment, cardiovascular equipment, abdominal equipments, weights, exercise balls and rowing machines.

The strength training equipments are normally used by men who are conscious in body building. The equipments used for strength training are barbells, dumbbells, resistance bands, weight machines, kettle bells, flexion machines. The most used flexion machines are Bow flex. For body strengthening along with the use of these equipments special diet need to be followed for the desired result.

Cardiovascular equipments are having a great category of fitness machine not only for the health conscious people but also for patients who are having cardiac problems. For the improvement of cardio vascular health most widely used equipments are elliptical machines, exercise bikes, rowing machines, treadmills, stair steppers and stair masters. These machines are used to improve the upper and lower body parts. The work pattern of each machine differs in accordance with specific functions. The treadmills, stair steppers, stair masters and bikes are designed for enhancing lower body part functions. Elliptical machines and rowing machines having a work pattern for full body work out.

Abdominal equipments are designed for strengthening the abdominal muscles. Abdominal exercise that include stretching machines need to be done in addition to the normal work out. For toning the abdominal muscles medicine balls are also used. Rowing machines include hydraulic resistance and water resistance rowing machines. In hydraulic rowing machines pistons are used as resistance. In water rowing machines water is used as resistance.

An excessive rate of work out using fitness equipment may be harmful. The fitness equipments are boon to a fitness cautious people if used in the proper form.

Impact of Digital Cameras

Paintings reflect the mind of a person who wanted to capture the visuals of nature or beauty. A painting is an elevated version of imagination about any subject in the world. The prime concern of a painting is to conceptualize and idea and to capture it in the pictorial form that could be preserved for a long time. In olden times painting was the only alternative create an image or visuals. During the progress in the technology during 19th century the technique of photography was introduced. The invention of earlier forms of cameras that took pictures in the black and white form was a land mark in the history. The capturing of an object or an image with a camera became a prestigious hobby among affluent people in the early 19th century. Earlier film rolls were loaded inside the conventional cameras where the negatives of the images were captured. Later the negatives used to be developed to photo or image in the dark room through various stages of washing the negatives. Movie cameras and still photos were developed through this process. With the advancement in technology the technology used in the cameras also subjected to various changes. The advent of digital technology in the IT field also reflected in the photographic field. The new technology of transforming digital signals into electronic images began a new era in the photographic arena. Digital cameras became the most popular electronic device in the 21st century.

In a digital camera photographs or videos are taken and recorded in the electronic image sensor. The invention of digital camera was in the year 1975. Steven Sasson invented the first digital camera. It was a built in camera with charge couple device image sensor. He was an engineer in Eastman Kodak and received National Medal in Technology and Innovation in the year 2009 for the invention of digital cameras that is recognized as the best invention of the 21st century.

The image sensors in the digital cameras are made up of millions of “ buckets” that counts the exact number of photons that strike the sensor. The image sensor turns the light into discrete signals. The values of the image read at a pixel depend on the brightness of the image that is caught on a point of the sensor. Other than the pixel sensor resolution is valued on several other factors including lens quality, sensor size and organization of the pixels. The standard pixel or sensor ratio is 4:3 and 3:2. The high quality resolutions in the consumer digital cameras are 80.1 Mega Pixel. Today there are wide range of digital cameras are available in the market with different resolutions, prices, capabilities and facilities. Digital cameras have great demand among professional photographers and amateurs. Digital single lens reflex cameras are most popularly used by the amateurs and professional photographers for its great versatility. Digital compact cameras and bridge digital cameras are next widely used category after single lens reflex cameras. The major categories of digital cameras used by every section of people in the world are the inbuilt camera phones. This digital camera phone is used by majority of people through the mobile application in the cell phones. Another exceptional digital camera category is the waterproof digital cameras that are used by under water professional photographers. The digital cameras are used in many fields including defense forces, medical and scientific field. The digital cameras are connected or incorporated in mobile phones, PDA’s and vehicles.

The advantage of digitals photos are that they can be deleted with out any heavy effort. Convenient capture of images, storage and deleting options makes the digital cameras the most widely accepted technological device of today.

Television and its Uses

The term television is a mix of Latin and Greek language. The term means Far sight. Tele is a Latin word meaning far and visio is Greek which means sight. Television is a means of telecommunication where all types of images particularly moving one, either neutral or colored can be sent and received. Such images may come with or without sound. Television came into existence in the market in the late nineteen twenties. Slowly television occupied in every home, establishments, etc. It became a part of life of man in every aspect. People started recognizing television as a big medium of marketing. It was also a great source of amusement. It helped in imparting information and various reports too. By nineteen fifties television proved to be a means of bringing all kinds of open outlook. Soon television was utilized for screening recorded matters in addition to transmitting matters. Such a change was in nineteen seventies due to the accessibility of video tapes, DVDS, etc. In the modern world one can watch television even through iPlayer and Hulu with the help of internet. Closed circuit television is also another form of television. But broadcast television is universally under usage. Broadcast television is a transformed form of radio broadcasting systems where television signals are transmitted to independent TV receivers’ through high powered radio frequency transmitters.

Earlier television was just a source of entertainment. But gradually it turned out to be a very good source of acquiring knowledge regarding various things or matters on world. It has become a part of our daily life which is indispensable from us. There are many good things about television. Its uses are also many. Disadvantages also exist. Television has made it possible for a person to see and get information about many things or events which occur around the world. In olden it took many days, months or even years to know what happened in a particular corner of the world. Sometimes people even remained unaware of things which took place around them. They were ignorant of many things that surrounded them. In the modern world man is able to view things or events on live through television with the help of artificial satellites. Thus a person who is sitting in one country is able to watch live events happening on other part of the world. The most interesting part of television is that a person need not go out or move around to watch events. He can very well sit in his home and watch the events live irrespective of climate or seasons. Television is helpful in conveying different matters in a much better than a radio. A person can not only hear the sound through the television but he can also watch the objects too. Things are clearer to him now. Television makes people aware of many things which they were ignorant of. It also helps in conveying different type of information to young people as well as older generations. Through television one can telecast useful and informative programs.

Television is actually a source of information as well as entertainment for all kinds of people. The young generations as well as the older ones enjoy television equally. Programs are available for all generations. Programs are categorized under different categories. There are science oriented programs, programs of historical importance, and other programs which emphasize on trade and business. One can even utilize television as a medium of advertising. Such advertisements have indeed helped in marketing products and eventually led to development of trade and commerce. There are also Political based programs in television. Such programs have made people to understand about their leaders and their activities. It is highly important to know that such programs must be telecasted on televisions which do not destroy the feel, quality and spirits of people. Programs must help a person to understand his nature and information and transform himself into a person of quality. Watching too much of television is also not good for health. It has its bad impacts too. Children are badly affected by the uncontrolled use of television. It has been observed that children watching more television often become aggressive for small things. Television has both advantages and disadvantages. Television can be used for our needs in a proper way. Only then it would prove to be useful for us rather becoming a harmful thing for us.

Scope of Consumer Electronics

The position of consumer in today’s society plays a vital role. Man’s need has increased from his minimum necessity to several needs. His needs are related to new life style where he can’t adapt without so many objects he invented. Some of his needs are not necessary for him yet he is compelled to follow certain standards of the consumerist society where he lives in. There are different kinds of goods or commodities in a wide range that is used by consumers. According to the need of the consumer several goods are available today in the market. There are different type of marketing systems exist providing various type of products. The consumers always have multiple choices in selecting consumer goods. There goods for house hold purpose are most demanded products in the market. In addition to the conventional marketing techniques online marketing or internet marketing is also used by consumers. Among the house hold products the electronic goods are most widely used. In the world of modern technology electronic goods has a prominent place than any other daily use products. The electronic goods are used in the kitchen in several house holds. The kitchen appliances always have a steady graph in the market. A modern house wife cannot imagine a life without electronic kitchen appliances in her house. Employed women consider electronic appliances as a boon to the hectic lifestyle. The major category of consumer electronics is used in the kitchens.

Apart form the household electronic appliances the other major categories of consumer electronic goods are used in entertainment field. The most interesting fact in the introduction of electronics was in the entertainment field. The invention of radio in the beginning of the 20th century in fact introduced the first electronic good in the entertainment field. The first consumer electronic equipment was the radio broadcast receiver. Later the technology of electronic goods had gone under noticeable changes. Today there is a wide range of electronic goods used in the entertainment field. They include mp3 players, televisions, audio and video equipment, handy cams, movie cameras, DVDs and VCRs. The latest technological applications used today in these electronic equipments are in the digital format.

Another areas were electronics are largely used is in the communication field, offices and in educational and professional institutions and organizations. Computers ranging from the conventional desk top model to the wireless laptop with high broad band internet connection are highly used in the communication field. Telecommunications and mobile communications use the land fixed phones to wireless mobile phones are the most sought electronic goods in the field of electronic communication. Pagers message display systems used in the airports and railways are the product of digital electronic equipments. The field of information technology is another field that uses electronic devices for various purposes including long distance communications. Offices based on the information technology field are entirely dependent on the use of update electronic technology. The digital technology is based on computerization that made consumerization in the field of information technology. The latest technology adaptation in the electronics gives the consumer a wide variety of selection of electronic goods. The latest technology of Wifi, Ether net and blue tooth are most widely accepted technology applied in the category of personal computers, mobile phones and other digital appliances. The technologies used are the result of convergence of different elements in the high-Fi technological devices. 75% of the electricity consumption all over the world is through use of electronic goods. The introduction of new technologies day by day give new format and forms to the electronic gadgets that makes the consumer to have a detailed study of the electronic appliances before making an apt purchase of the electronic item that suits his need.

Technolgical Eras of Mobile Phone

Ever since the history of mankind man was eager about the methods of communication. He wanted to communicate with his fellow beings and found several methods for communications. He communicated to others who are far away by making particular sounds or voices with the help of instruments that was recognized by his fellow beings. By the change of time several ways of communications were invented for distance communication. During the end of the 18th century and the beginning of 19th century revolutionary changes happened in the field of communication. With the invention of papers people began to communicate through writing. Messengers were appointed for sending the messages to far away.

The invention of radio, telegraph and tele phones were the other modes of communications that made great impact in the life of people. The communication of voices through devices was successful through the invention of telephone particularly in the land phones. The major draw back of old telephone was that they were fixed to a place. While traveling the use of fixed land line phones were impossible. In the year 1906 an invention of a device by Charles E Alden made the earlier version of the most popular cell phones today. He termed his invention as “Vest Pocket Telephones”. The very first mobile phone calls were made in the year 1946. The greatest advantages of mobile phones are its convenience to carry them during travel. The cellular phone or mobile phone are structured in a way by making and receiving telephone calls through a radio link or channel in any geographical area. The service provider or mobile operator connects the signals form the cell phone through a network that has access to public telephone network. In the year 1973 Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola gave the first demonstration of mobile hand set weighing around 2.2 pounds. In the year 1983 mobile phones became commercially available. Dyna TAC 8000 X was the first commercially available mobile phone. After 1983 mobiles phones were began to be used widely in the European world. After that during early 1990’s mobile phones were introduced world wide and it had a tremendous acceptance world wide form 1990 till present.

During these period mobile had undergone several technical d model changes. Many mobile phone companies began to emerge during these periods with different type of mobile phone models. All mobile phones have certain common features but manufacturers try to high light exclusive mobile features of their own. The basic components of mobile phone include battery, key pad, screen, Sim card and circuit board. Today the touch screen phones are widely used. Apart from making and receiving calls mobile companies provide additional features of text messaging or SMS, email service, internet access, short range wireless communications of Bluetooth and infrared. Business applications, video, social networking, photos are the most advanced features provided by the latest mobile phone technology. These additional features are mostly available in the smart phones. Before the introduction of smart phones 2G and 3G cellular technology was available.  By the end of 2009 the 3G networks were taken over by the bandwidth growth of intense applications. This 4th generation technology after 3G has the speed improvements 10 fold greater than 3 G technologies. The advanced data optimized 4 G technologies are the WIMAX standard and LTE standard.

Even though mobile phones are inevitable in the life of person today there are wide possibilities of misuse of the mobile technologies. The MMS, SMS and photographic options in a mobile are exploited by anti social activities. Mobile tracking without the knowledge of users is a crime unless it is permitted by the law at certain exceptional circumstances. The radiation emanating from the phones are also another health hazard possessed by mobile phone. The wise usage of mobile phones will reduce the risk of its negatives


2013 Copyright techgo.org, All right reserved || Privacy Policies, Terms and Disclaimer

Website Administered by MISH IT SOLUTIONS