Flexible Photovoltaic Technology is technology of research levels. It was example of one that had been created at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In this solar cells were manufactured by deposition of photovoltaic materials on substrates that are flexible like ordinary paper. There is also usage of chemical vapour deposition technologies. Manufacturing technologies of solar cell on paper had been developed by researchers group from National Science Foundation and Eni-MIT Alliance Solar Frontiers Program.
Features: Photovoltaic organic circuit materials have been deposited in 5 layers on substrates of ordinary paper in vacuum chambers. This is done by conformal coating of conductive electrode polymer with chemical oxidative vapours. Process is called chemical vapour deposition. Solar panels of this kind have capabilities of voltage production which exceeds 50 V. This in turn power appliance normally at lighting conditions. Solar cells are shown also being flexible. Conductive solar cells grids are same as inkjet photo printouts with rectangles patterned. When leads have been attached to substrates electrically, it has to be shown to electrical power appliances. “Printing” costs (as described by MIT) is claimed for being same as photo inkjet printing. The technology makes use of vapour deposition temperatures being less than 120 degrees. This becomes easy for manufacturing on ordinary papers. Panel’s current efficiency is nearly 1%. Researchers hope for improvement in near futures. Testing: Circuits were tested also by deposition of photovoltaic materials on (PET) polyethylene terephthalate substrates. PET sheets were unfolded and folded 1000 times. No over ting performance deterioration had been observed. There are photovoltaic materials common being deposited on deteriorated PET with only 1 fold. Solar cell was passed also by means of laser printing for demonstrating performance continued after exposures to temperatures somewhat high. It still retains procedural characteristics.
Benefits: In solar panels conventionally, panel’s supporting structures like brackets and glass are 2 times more costly as materials of photovoltaic being manufactured on them. Paper in turn costs 1 thousandth of glass approximately. Solar cells use printing process. This is much cheap than solar panels conventionally. Different methods also which involves coating papers along with material includes 1st paper coating with smooth materials for counter acting molecular scale’s paper rough. But in this process, photovoltaic materials are directly coated onto paper untreated.
Applications: In case solar cells achieve in turn sufficient maturity technologically, they are used as window shades and wall papers for electricity production from lighting room. They also can be manufactured on the clothing. This can be used for charging portable devices electronically such as media players and mobile phones. Solar flexible modules are used on roofs curved or on those roofs where there is no sense of installing rack mounting systems.
Disadvantages: For lasting more than 20 years outdoors being having elements exposure, solar cells are finished with front sheets of thermoplastic olefin or UV resistant fluoropolymer instead of glass being used in solar cells conventional. This is less costly comparatively. Solar cells should be sealed such that oxygen and water do not enter and destroy cells by means of oxidative degradation. Photovoltaic solar cell: Solar panels are imagined when one thinks of solar power (polycrystalline and monocrystalline). Flexible photovoltaic technology is composed not of highly silicon refined crystals. But instead it is 1 continuous material. 4 types of (TFPV) thin-film solar photovoltaic being classified by photovoltaic materials are used. TFPV principle is same as crystalline PV. Light strikes material. It excites electrons. Then flow by means of p-n junction permutation, thereby generating electricity’s that is utilized and captured.
There are amorphous silicon (aSi) solar photovoltaic cells: This was developed in seventies. It was made from silicon’s non-crystalline form.
Hydrogen fuel is that fuel which is zero emissioned. This is the case when hydrogen fuel is burned with the oxygen (water being considered not as emission) or used in cell contained having the capabilities of reverse reactions in case required. It uses often internal engines combustion or electrochemical cells for powering electric and vehicles devices. It is used also in spacecraft’s propulsion. It potentially might be commercialized and mass produced for vehicles passenger and aircraft. Hydrogen lies in 1st period and 1st group in periodic table. This means that it is 1st element on periodic table. This makes hydrogen lightest of all elements. Hydrogen gas is very light. So, it rises in atmosphere. So, it is found rarely in its purest form. In flames of pure hydrogen gases and air burning, oxygen and hydrogen react with one another to form water. This releases energy. In case reaction is brought about in atmospheric air in place of pure oxygen, which is case usually. Then combustion of hydrogen yields small amount of nitrogen oxides together with water vapour.
Energy being released thereby enables hydrogen being acting as fuel. In electrochemical cells, this energy is used with relative high efficiencies. In case this is used for heating, then thermodynamic limits usually on thermal efficiency application. There is too much little free gas of hydrogen. The hydrogen is only practiced as energy carriers like electricity. It is not energy resource. There should be production of hydrogen gas. This production needs more energy which is retrieved from gas as fuels later on. This has been limitation of physical laws of energy conservation. Production of hydrogen thereby induces impacts on environment. Production: Since pure hydrogen gases do not naturally occur on Earth in plentiful quantities. So it takes energy in substantial amounts for its production industrially. Various ways of producing it is steam methane reforming process and electrolysis process. In process of electrolysis, electricity’s run by means of water for separating oxygen and hydrogen atoms. This process uses nuclear, wind, biomass, solar, geothermal, fossil fuels, hydro and different other sources of energy. To obtain hydrogen from this method is studied as viable ways of producing it domestically at low costs. In process of steam methane reforming, there are current leading technologies for production of hydrogen in big quantities. This method thereby extracts hydrogen from methane. This reaction, however, causes side productions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. These are greenhouse gases which contribute to global warming.
Energy: Hydrogen acts as energy carrier once it is manufactured. It is energy store being generated 1st by different means. Energy is delivered to the fuel cells. This generates heat and electricity. It is burned for running combustion engines. In all cases, hydrogen is to be combined with oxygen for forming water. Heat in hydrogen flames are radiant emissions from water molecules newly formed. Water molecules remain in excited states on initial formations. Then they have transitions to ground states. This transition unleashes thermal radiation. 2000 degrees is roughly temperature when air burning is done. Carbon, historically, is most practical energy carrier. More energy is packed in the fossil fuels when compared with purified liquid hydrogen of similar volumes. Atoms of carbon had have storage capabilities classically. This releases more energy even when wit hydrogen it is burned. Burning, however, carbon based fuels releases exhaust contribution to global warming. Reason is that, there are greenhouse effects of carbon gases. Pure hydrogen is very small element. So, little of it escapes inevitably from pipe or container in fewer amounts. Simple ventilation prevents leakage of this kind from reaching 4% volatile hydrogen air mixture.
Solar Power is conversion of sunlight to electricity, directly either using (PV) Photovoltaic or indirectly using (CSP) concentrated solar power. Systems of concentrated solar power use mirrors or lenses and tracking systems for focusing large sunlight area to small beams. Photovoltaic converts light to electric current by utilizing photovoltaic effects. Photovoltaic was solely initially used as electricity sources for medium and small sized applications. This is from calculators powered by 1 solar cell to homes remote being powered by rooftop off-grid PV system. As costs of solar electricity falls, numbers of grid connected PV solar systems have grown to millions. Utility scaled solar power stations with megawatts in hundreds are built. PV solar is rapidly becoming low carbon, inexpensive technology for harnessing renewable energies from Sun.
Emerging technologies after photovoltaic cell (PV cell) or solar cell: Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV): This system employs sunlight being concentrated onto surfaces of photovoltaic for purposes of electrical power productions. Opposite to conventional PV systems, it uses curved mirrors and lenses for focusing sunlight to small, but too much highly efficient multi- junction solar cell. Solar concentrators of many varieties are used. These are mounted often on solar trackers for keeping focal points on cells with movement of sun across sky. Luminescent Solar Concentrators plus PV solar cell is regarded as CPV system. CPV are useful because they improve PV solar panels efficiency drastically. Floatovoltaics: This is emerging form of the PV systems which floats on surfaces of tailing ponds, irrigation canals, quarry lakes and water reservoirs. This system in turn reduces requirement of land area valued and drinking water saved. This water could be lost by means of evaporation. Then there is showing of high efficiencies of solar energy conversions. This is as panels have been kept at cool temperatures than their presence on land. Hybrid Systems: This combines CSP and CPV with each other or with different forms of generations like biogas, diesel and wind. Generation’s combined form enables systems modulating power outputs as demanding functions or reducing at least fluctuating solar power natures and consumption of fuel non-renewable. These hybrid systems are often found on islands.
CSP/CPV system: Novel solar CSP/CPV hybrid system is proposed. It combines concentrator photovoltaic with non-PV technologies of concentrated solar powers. This is called also concentrated solar thermal. ISCC system: There is combination of CSP with gas turbines. In this, 25 megawatt CSP parabolic trough arrays supplement much large 130 megawatt combined turbine cycle gas plant. PVT system: This is Hybrid PV/T system. It is called Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Solar Collectors. This converts solar radiations to electrical and thermal energy. This system combines Solar PV modules with solar thermal collectors in complementary ways. CPVT system: It is Concentrated Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid system being same as PVT system. This utilizes concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) in place of conventional PV technologies. This combines it with solar thermal collectors. PV diesel system: This combines PV system with diesel generator. Combination with different renewables has been possible that includes wind turbines. PV-thermoelectric system: Thermovoltaic, thermoelectric devices convert temperature differences in between dissimilar materials to electric currents. Solar cells use high frequency radiation parts only. Low frequency heat energy is wasted. Plenty of patents regarding use of the thermoelectric devices in solar cell’s tandem have been filed. Idea is increasing efficiencies of combined thermoelectric/solar system for converting solar radiations to useful electricity.
Parabolic trough in turn consists of linear parabolic reflectors which has concentration of light to receivers being positioned through focal line of reflector. Receiver is tube being positioned just right above middle of parabolic mirrors. This is filled with working fluids.
There has to be presentation of real natures, intelligence, characteristics, incredible powers and creativity of Dark Energy. There has to be presentation of function, nature and structure of Dark Matter. There has to be queries about how and why Big Bang had its occurrence. This knowledge is at least being existed century ahead of times. But there are no receptive ears. It is disheartening for seeing that for invisible subject inquiry’s verification, our scientific communities look for tangible evidences whilst subject matter inquiry’s nature is invisible and intangible to eyes.
The tangible verification tools are primitive. This is when study subjects relate to non-materialistic worlds of unknown entrance trials. Embodiment of this statement is at even most modern and advanced experimentation and studies like LHC, ATLAS at European Organization for Nuclear Research. (LHC) Large Hadron Collider which is new particle’s accelerator near Geneva, Switzerland, is marvelous achievement of science. It is ring shaped tunnel. It is around 300 feet underground. It is about 17 miles around. Proton beams are sent by having whirling around the ring. There are abilities of making circuits in 1/10000 approximately of a second. For this fall, scientists had been planning for sending 2 proton beams through tunnels in directions that are opposite. There is expectation of causing nearly 600 million heads on crashes in 1 second. This is seen not since Big Bang. Statement is that with splintering and collision of protons almost instantaneously to small particles, the physicists do take debris resulting of particle energy, tracks and momentum. This is for reconstructing “who dunit” of entire collision. After 1st experimentation seemingly, system had been damaged. The experimentation had been postponed till time of next spring, in case not later.
There is no criticizing of values of so much modern and advanced inquiries for discovering Universe secrets. It has been stated by Dr. Sakai that highly incredible energy being achieved in collider aims for mimicking conditions existing a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of 1 second after Big Bang. Particles energetic being created in such atmospheres are unstable highly. It shatters instantly almost to showers of small specks. Physicists use ephemeral particles for probing nature of universe thereby hoping for improving understanding of physical principles which underline all aspects of that world in which we live. It is stated by Professor Wesley Smith that Higgs (GOD particle) discoveries fills in last gaps in Standard Models by virtual confirmation of theories. No Higgs, otherwise, shall mean Standard Model is flowed fundamentally. In case we do not find it, then we shall know that it is not there. Then we need to go back to drawing boards. This will be rewriting textbook experience. All of these important discoveries have their own merits. None of them led to discoveries of origin of creation. Reason is that with incorrect assumptions we get incorrect conclusions. In matterless world 1/10000 of a second is long time infinitely. Material universe furthermore had not been created by Big Bang. But this was initiated billions of years ahead of this. It resulted in Big Bang. Importantly more, Big Bang had not resulted from collision of some subatomic particles. But there was saturation of super energy known as “Dark Energy”. It was in designated spaces being created by material world’s initiation by universe matterless. This was known also as Creator. Before Big Bang’s creation there was creation of Pure Matter. This pure matter was invisible, dense and transparent. Big Bang had been followed by different Big Bangs. They were not as large as 1st one which created chaotic movements inside sphere of Materialized Universe. Pondering points are that in case you know entire function and structure of Universe, you can go after components unknown with determined, conscious manners.
Biomass is that organic matter which is derived from recently living or living organisms. Fact is that, biomass is resource of making energy. It refers often mostly to plant based or plants materials that is not used for feed or food. These are known specifically as lignocellulosic biomass. As energy sources, biomass is used either directly by means of combustion for producing heat or after conversion of it indirectly to plenty biofuel forms. Biomass conversion to biofuel is achieved by various ways. This is classified broadly into: chemical, biochemical and thermal methods.
Conversion process of Biomass to energy that is useful: Conversion thermally: This conversion process uses heat as mechanisms dominantly for converting biomass to other chemical forms. Basic combustion alternatives (like gasification, torrefaction and pyrolysis) have been principally separated by extents to which reactions chemically have been involved and allowed for proceeding. This is controlled mainly by oxygen availability and temperature of conversion. Energy being created by biomass (fuel wood) burning is suited particularly for those countries in which fuel wood has rapid growing, example tropical countries. Lots of different less common, too much more proprietary or experimental thermal process is there. This offers advantages like (HTU) hydrothermal upgrading and hydroprocessing. Few are developed for usages on biomass with high content of moisture. This includes aqueous slurries, which in turn allows them for converting too many forms conveniently. Few thermal conversion applications have co-firing and (CHP) combined heat and power. In biomass dedicated typical power plants, efficiency ranges from 20% to 27%. This is high heating valued basis. Biomass co-firing with coal typically, by contrast, occurs at efficiency near that of coal combustor. This is 30% to 40% of high heating valued basis.
Conversion chemically: Chemical process ranges are used for converting biomass to different forms. There is production of fuel which is very conveniently stored, used or transported or exploiting little properties of process itself. Plenty of processes have been based in large parts on same coal based processes like methanol production, olefins (propylene and ethylene) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. There are same fuel feedstocks or chemical feedstocks too. 1st step involves gasification. This step is generally most costly. It involves great technical risks. Biomass is very difficult for feeding to pressure vessels than any liquid or coal. So, gasification of biomass is done frequently at atmospheric pressure thereby causing biomass combustion. This produces combustible gases that consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane traces. Gas mixture known as producer gas, provides fuels for lots of vital processes. It is like internal combustion engines and substitutes for furnace oils in heat direct applications. Since, biomass materials undergo gasification; the process is more attractive to far extents than biomass or ethanol production. In this, specific biomass materials only can be used for producing fuels. Additional factor is that, biomass gasification is desirable processes because of ease with which it converts solid wastes to producer gases. This is very good and usable fuel. Solid wastes are wastes present on farms. Conversion biochemically: Since, biomass is natural product, so lots of high efficient biochemical process is developed in nature for breaking down molecules out of which there is composition of biomass. Lots of these conversion biochemical processes could be harnessed. Conversions biochemically take usage of bacterial enzymes and different microorganisms’ enzymes for breaking down biomass. In many cases, the microorganisms have been used for performing process of conversion like composting, anaerobic digestion and fermentation