Category Archives: Food

What is In vitro meat? It’s Production, Difference with Conventional meat?

In vitro meat is called as cultured meat, test-tube meat, shmeat, tube steak, victimless meat and cruelty-free meat. It is product of animal-flesh which is not part of living animal excepting fatal calf serum that is taken from cow slaughtered. In 21st century numerous research projects have been worked in labs on In vitro meat. 1st In vitro beef burger was created by team of Dutch. It was eaten at party of demonstration in 2013 August for London press. Difficulties remained to be overcome at time before In vitro meat became available commercially.

Cultured meat is expensive prohibitively, but there is an expectation that there will be reduction in cost whilst competing with meat obtained conventionally with improvement of technology. In vitro meat is cultural issue also. argument is there because it is lesser objectionable when compared to meat obtained traditionally as it involves no killing and reduction of cruelty of risking life of animal whilst disagreement is with meat eating which has not naturally developed.

Production: Development process in In vitro meat provides involvement of muscle cells factors of taking and protein application which promotes growth of tissue. Once there is beginning of process it is possible theoretically for continuing meat production without introduction of new cells from living organism indefinitely. Claiming is that, ideal conditions are there when there is In vitro meat production and delivery to 50,000 meat tons from 10 pork muscle cells in 2 months.

In vitro meat is produced as muscle fibre strips that grow by precursor cells fusion, either, adult stem cells, specialized satellite cells or embryonic stem cells present in muscle tissue. This meat type is cultured in bioreactor.

Meat can be grown to “real” muscle alternatively. This needs some akin things to circulatory system for delivering oxygen and nutrients closer to cells that are growing and removal of waste products. Cell types like adipocytes needs to be having growth. Chemical messengers’ provides clues to tissue growing related to structure. Tissue of muscle needs physical exercise or stretching for proper development. Preservation is needed in production of In vitro meat like sodium benzoate for protecting meat growth from fungus and yeast. Xanthan gum, cochineal, collagen powder and mannitol are used in numerous methods during process.

Difference with conventional meat:


Researchers suggest that omega-3 fatty acids have been made additions to In vitro meat as bonus of health. In same way, content of omega-3 fatty acid in conventional meat is increased by alternation of feedings of animals. In vitro process there is decreasing meat exposure to disease and bacteria.

Environmental: Research reveals that cultured meat’s impacts environmental are lower significantly when compared to normal beef slaughtered. For each hectare used for manufacturing of In vitro meat by vertical farming between 10 to 20 hectares land are converted from usage of agriculture conventionally back to state naturally. Vertical farm exploits methane digesters’ for generating small part of own needs electrically. Methane digesters build on site transformation of organic wastes generation at facilities to biogas that is composed of methane 65% together with different gases. Biogas is burned for electricity generation for bioreactor series or greenhouse.

Genetic modification roles: Genetic engineering techniques like deletion, activation, insertion, mutation and silencing of genes are not needed for In vitro meat production. In vitro meat is made of tissue or tissue collection but not organism. So it is not Genetically Modified Organism (GMO). As because In vitro meat is cells grown in artificial, controlled environment, some comment that cultured meat resembles closely hydroponic vegetables instead of GMO vegetables.

Considerations ethically: Inquiries independently are set up by some governments for creating standard’s degree for In vitro meat.

Various aspects of Hunting

Even in the pre –historic time it is presumed that man survived on food that he obtained from hunting. The tools he used during pre-historic and ancient times discovered through excavation by the explorers affirms that the very first method done by man in search of his food was hunting. He hunted animals as it was his main source of food. It is presumed that man imitated the predation among animals. He observed when strong animals hunted weaker ones for food. The predation of animals was purely for the source of food. Even though man hunted in early period for food later by the passage of time he began to hunt for recreational purposes and for trading. With the advent of civilization hunting for food in several communities began to be restricted. Some earlier communities relied on vegetarian food and never allowed or encouraged hunting animals. A sector of people who belonged to the lower strata of the society continued hunting for obtaining food and even today in many rural and remote places certain communities pursue hunting. Hunting was also pursued by kings for the sake of recreation.

Many historical evidences affirm that 18,000 years ago hunting was prominent and later on domestication of animals made a change in the hunting gatherer lifestyle style of nomadic tribes. The fossil evidence of spears and other sharp tools confirms that hunting was practiced more than 16,200 years ago. Many tribal societies all in many parts of the world still practice hunting for the source of their food. But soon after the advent of agrarian civilization that was spread in almost all parts of the world and the domestication of animals reduced the hunting. Even though the hunting was reduced as a source of food it was practiced for getting the fur and leather of animals for trade purposes. In the restriction of hunting various religions also played important roles.

The Hindu religion in India propagates the divinity and presence of god in every thing did not restrict hunting animals. According to Hindu mythology even the deities engaged in hunting. Hunting was also considered as kingly sport where valor of a king is assessed by the wild animals hunted. The kshtariya kings of India were quite famous for hunting wild animals. The Mughal kings considered hunting as a practice along with their retinue to affirm their superiority and competitions in hunting wild animals with other kings was a prestigious sport during the ancient time.

In Roman Catholic Christians hunting is prohibited through catholic clergies even from the early centuries. In accordance with the belief of Protestants, Bible does not restrict hunting as per the verses in Act of Apostles and Timothy and hunting has no religious restrictions for protestant community.

The Jewish hunting law based on the Torah, also does not restrict hunting but the category of animals to be hunted is specified. Non preying animals or herbivores can be hunted only for food and not for sports or recreational activity. The Islamic law also follows the principles of Jewish law for hunting non-preying animals and hunting is not considered as sport. Non preying animals can be hunted for food and such food need to be shared to the poor in accordance with the Islamic law.

There are several techniques adopted for hunting including shooting, archery, netting, baiting and battue. The hunting is mostly restricted in many parts of the world mainly for the conservation of environmental balance and to prevent cruelty against the animals.

Many organizations for prevention of cruelty against animals strongly oppose the practice of hunting and as a result of their relentless effort in many countries hunting is banned through legislation and laws.

Surprise about Fishing

Surprise About Fishing

Surprise About Fishing

Sea is always a treasure of surprises. The surprise element of sea was a source of inspiration for writers, artists and poets in the creation of many classic stories, novels and paintings. The beauty and mystery of sea attracted people form every walk of life. Apart form being an inspirational source sea is also a means of livelihood for a majority sector of people. According to the historical evidence right from the Stone Age period fishing was done by ancient people. There are several remarks in the history about fishing and it clearly states that fish and other sea foods was staple food of several communities form the ancient time onwards. Fishing is defined as an activity done for catching fish through several methods. Fishing is not confined to sea but also in fresh waters. There are techniques adopted by people who have specialized skills in catching the fish. There are communities who depend on fishing for their livelihood. From the ancient time onwards there were countries that had fishing communities who implemented various methods of fishing.

Egyptians depended on river Nile for catching fish and depictions of different methods of fishing was inscribed in the old papyrus documents and on tomb pictures. From the ancient pictorial representation the olden methods of fishing were seen as catching fish by netting and hooking. These two methods are still followed by fisher men as the traditional form of fishing. There are other remarks about fishing in the Holy Bible and Holy Quran. Religious influence and impact is seen in the fishing tradition and culture of different fishing communities. Certain sector of people in all most all religions including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism have followed the occupation of fishing as their tradition and culture. In many parts of the world fishing is an occupation that is the reflection of cultural identity. There are fishing communities that entirely depend on fishing for their livelihood from generations to generations.

People near the Mediterranean Sea had a staple seafood diet. The communities who live in the coastal areas and islands have a diet of seafood diet where fish is consumed in a major quantity. In Southern India there are references traced back to the 1st century where pearl fishing was done. Deep sea pearl fishing was done in the Tuticorin harbor right from the 1st century in the ancient Dravidian kingdom of Pandya kings. The fish and the seafood consumption were strong in the early centuries and still continue in Rome and Greece. In ancient Rome and Greece the Royal family diet contained exotic fish varieties. In ancient time onwards fish was consumed in dry and fresh forms. In many parts of the Europe including Italy, Latin American countries mainly Spain and Portugal dry fish is an essential part of their cuisine.

Today fishing industry has a steady graph all over the world. Governments of many countries have taken many measures for the growth of fishing industry. Fishing industry today has three major sectors of commercial fishing, traditional fishing and recreational fishing.

The commercials sector of fishing is termed as Seafood industry. It includes right from the catch of the fish to various process of preserving, storing, transporting fish for selling in the markets. The fish is a product for sale in commercial fishing. In the traditional sector fishermen catch fish in their traditional methods taught by their ancestors. They sell the fish for low rates when compared to commercial fishing. The recreational sector includes people or organizations that do fishing for entertainment purpose or for sports where fishing is not meant for any sale purpose.

It is an admitted fact that fishing is recognized traditional and commercial occupation all over the world and fish products or sea food is the most widely accepted diet by majority of people.

Dieting and Its Importance in Modern Life

Food is one of the basic essentials that sustain human life. The survival of human beings and other living things depend on the food intake. Every country has its own ethnic or traditional food. There are several factors promotes the food culture in a country. From the climatic conditions to the lifestyle and the availability of food materials is reflected in the food habit of people in a country. The food culture in a country with extreme cold conditions is highly different from a country having tropical or hot climate. In this diverse aspects food in any form cannot be ignored for leading a healthy life. As an exception today people tend to control their food through new food habits for maintaining the body weight.

A practice or a scheduled routine in the intake of food to maintain body weight particularly to loose body weight is termed as dieting. The main purpose of following diet is to have a stable body weight. Dieting was earlier done by the celebrities in the movies and sports field. For Athletes dieting is a lifestyle for being efficient in their profession. Dieting was always considered as a trend among common people particularly among teenagers and professionals almost 20 years back. With the progress in education and various fields of profession people began to be self conscious particularly in the appearance and personality. During 1960’s many feminist movements discarded the concept of dieting and encouraged the concept of having healthy food for women to have positive attitude the body figure they have. They strongly criticized the concept of dieting pointing out that result in the process of control in the food will be vitamin deficiencies and loss of immunity of the body. More over a crash dieting will reduce the body weight instantly resulting in other health problems. Another aspect for the rejection of dieting by the feminist movement was that it lowered the standard of woman in the entertainment field that had only an attractive value in the appearance.

 As a result of globalization many ideologies had tremendous change. Irrespective of gender and other barriers people wanted to be more presentable and active. Dieting that improved the health and appearance began to be appreciated and accepted by men and women. In hospitals dieticians had a specific place and importance that was not even heard during 1950’s and 1960’s. Dieting courses and centres that give guidance for proper dieting began to be established. Some dieting schedules include exercise activities for toning the body. Health care supplements designed for the people who are under strict diet is the new trend in dieting. The normal diet care process involves four stages: – low fat, low calorie, low carbohydrate and very low calories.

The main cause of obesity or increase in the body weight is the high intake of fat and carbohydrates. The deposit of fat in the body tissues and cells makes the body overweight until these deposited fats are burned out. Following a low fat and low carbohydrate diet reduce the fat consumption that will result in the body weight loss. Detoxing is the new method of dieting in elimination of fat and toxin deposits in the body. When the unwanted fats and toxins are eliminated the metabolic process become normal and control metabolic disorders. Detoxing process involves the use of low calorie vegetables, herbs and fruits.

The major drawback of dieting is even though the body weight is loss through proper dieting the body will gain weight after discontinuing the dieting process. Another aspect of dieting is it is done for the sake of fashion and trend when there are millions of children and people who are deprived of food that is essential for the survival. Dieting done for improving health condition of patients is more sensible than done for show off.

Cooking is an Essential thing in Life

One of the basic needs of man that promotes his survival on the earth is food. A world without food is unimaginable for everyone. In all parts of the world irrespective of all kinds of barriers among people or place food is the basic element that connects them. When the history of food is traced back it is quite evident to know that the nature provided the food in the form of fruits and man entirely depended on nature for food. He found fruits as the prime source of food. By the passage of time several changes occurred in his life style. He began to hunt for food in the dense forests. Later he invented fire and found that he can cook food in the fire. Gradually cooking or cooked food prepared with the help of heat or fire became his staple food. There is no historical evidence to prove the first cooking but some researchers believe that cooking might have started between 1.8 million and 2.3 million years ago. In early times the fire was used to cook tubers and meat. Soon cooked food became an integral part of cultures that existed in the world. During the 16th and 17th century cooked food or culinary became a prestigious symbol of palaces and affluent families. Soon each nation has developed unique tradition in the preparation of food. Along with the migration the culinary tradition also began to travel from one part of the world to another. People began to do experiment in cooking that resulted in the invention of several culinary delicacies.

Industrialization gave new dimensions to the culinary experiments in the 19th century. The processed foods were begun to be made in mass quantity. Processed foods in canned or packages forms became popular among the working class due to its easy consumption. The processed food in fact gave birth to new food culture that got mass appeal from every section of people from the society. Different methods of cooking were introduced. Ever since the invention of fire food was directly put in the fire for cooking. Later with the invention of vessels and other cooking accessories food began to be cooked through various processes including boiling, steaming, smoking, frying, roasting, grilling, barbequing, braising, baking and preserving food in the freezing mode. Among these methods of cooking frying foods is an easy option in the preparation of foods and at the same time it possess serious threat to the health. There are toxins released during the process of frying due to the chemical occurrence of chemical reaction. Boiled or steamed foods are considered as the safest method of cooking that are good for health. Through steaming or boiling bacteria and virus present in the raw food will be eliminated. The steaming of food is considered as the best method to sterilize food especially for the food to be preserved for long time. The steamed or sterilized food can be preserved through deep freezing process. But another draw back of frozen foods is the growth of bacteria that occur in deep cold condition. If the raw food particularly meat is cooked by the frying process additional fat and toxic materials will be released from the oil that are quite harmful to the metabolic and digestive process in the body.

It is quite an evident fact that properly cooked food promotes good health condition by providing adequate nutrition to the body and there by increasing the immunity. It is always better to stick to the home cooked foods rather than using factory or commercially produced processed foods. A healthy diet always consists of properly cooked food and fresh fruits and vegetables that do not require cooking.

History of Coffee and Coffee Processing

Every region has a regional beverage that is confined to that particular area. There are two beverages that are accepted all over the world even in the remote parts. Tea and coffee are the most popular beverages that became an indispensable part of lifestyle of today. There are several disputes relating to the origin of the word coffee. Many claim to have the term’s origin from Turkish and Arabic languages. In English a reference related to coffee as “chaoua” was recorded in the year 1598. The most reliable source relating to the origin of the word is it had originated from the South Western Ethiopia in Africa. Coffee is considered to be a native plant from the African Continent. It is believed that during the 9th century a goat herder, named Kaldi found the coffee plant. Only during the middle of the 16th century the discovery by Kaldi was mentioned in writing. The journey of coffee from Ethiopia through Egypt and Yemen reached in the Arab nations. Sheik Omar was believed to be a saint when he introduced this miracle drug to the Arab nations.

The process of coffee seed roasting and brewing began in the Arab nations. They found the aromatic drink from the coffee as a stimulant and energy revitalizer. The coffee drink began to be widely used by the Arabs in Middle East and gradually coffee was introduced in Turkey. The traders in Yemen brought the coffee back to Ethiopia for cultivation of coffee in large scale. Soon coffee began to be spread in Italy, Indonesia, Europe and America. In India coffee seeds were planted first in Mysore. The coffee plantations in Koorg are world famous. The quality and grade of the coffee from Koorg is excellent that is been imported to several foreign countries. Soon several countries all over the world discovered the potential of coffee plantations and began to cultivate coffee as a crop. The coffee cultivation became the main source of revenue of several countries in its export and import. The majority of economy of central African countries is promoted from the coffee cultivation. Today Brazil is the world’s largest producer of coffee followed by Vietnam and Indonesia. The main source of income of several developing countries is purely from coffee production.

The processing of coffee to coffee powder involves several stages that require extreme hygienic conditions. The drying of the coffee seeds is the first stage of coffee processing. The flesh of coffee berries will be removed after plucking from the coffee plant. The seeds will be put for drying on tables. Another process is the wet process where the fermented seeds are washed with large quantity of water to remove the fermentation residue and then dried. Roasting of the seeds is the most important stage. Right temperature is required for roasting that determines the quality of the coffee. The dried coffee is sold in roasted form or the dried seeds can be roasted at home. The flavor of the roasted coffee seeds is determined by its color and texture. There are dark, medium dark, light, premium light and so on. The dark roasted coffee have a sugary flavor and light roast have stronger and aromatic flavor. The roasted coffee beans is powered that will be ready for brewing. The storage of roasted coffee beans and coffee powder should be in air tight containers. The moisture and humidity makes the coffee powder soggy. The powdered coffee will be mixed with hot water and bring to boil for making a beverage. Milk and sugar may be added as per the taste of the consumer.

Even though coffee is considered as good energy stimulator the effects of coffee consumption is a debatable subject. Some strongly advocates the intake of coffee and on the other hand the warning is also given against the extreme consumption of coffee. The caffeine in the coffee if taken for a long period will results in other health related problems. In the midst of strong arguments against and for of the coffee consumption till date, it remains one of the major popular beverages in the world.

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