Category Archives: Genetics

Genetic Engineering Tools and Techniques

Genetic Engineering causes alternation of organism’s genetic make-up by usage of techniques which removes material that is heritable or introduces DNA that is made out of organism into cell or directly to host which is then hybridized or fused with host. It involves usage of RNA (recombinant nucleic acid) or DNA techniques for forming new heritable combinations of material genetically. This is followed by material incorporation directly by means of macro-injection, micro-encapsulation and micro-injection or indirectly by means of vector system techniques.


Genetic engineering has no inclusion of plant and animal breeding traditionally, in vitro fertilisation, cell fusion and induction of mutagenesis, polyploidy which use RNA or organism that are genetically modified in process. Stem cell research and cloning though not regarded as genetic engineering are related closely to it. Synthetic biology is discipline that is emerging and it takes genetic engineering ahead by introduction of synthesized artificial material from raw material to organism.

If materials of genetics from different species are conducted host addition, organism resulting is known as transgenic. If materials of genetics from similar species or naturally breeding species with host has been used organism resulting is known as cisgenic. Genetic engineering is used for removal of genetic material from targeted organism in turn leading to gene knock out organism. Genetic modification and Genetic engineering means the same. It refers to methods of conventional breeding. A product is regarded as modified genetically if it possesses some traits not found previously in species if generated by usage of genetic engineering or old breeding ways like cell fusion, mutation breeding, and selective breeding. Term transgenicare is name preferred.


Firstly there should be isolation and choice of gene that has to be inserted to organism that is genetically modified. In 2012, most commercial GM plants had transferring of genes to them which provided protection from insects or herbicides tolerances. Genes are isolated by usage of restriction enzymes for cutting DNA to fragments and gel electrophoresis for separating them as per lengths. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is used for amplification of segment of gene that is isolated by gel electrophoresis. In case gene chosen or genome of organism of donor is studied nicely as it is present in library of genetics. In case there is knowledge of DNA sequence but there is no availability of gene copy it is synthesized artificially.

Gene is inserted to organism that is genetically modified and combined with different elements of genetics for proper working. Gene is modified now for better effectiveness or expression. Gene that has to be inserted mostly constructs and contains terminator and promoter regions and selectable marker gene. Promoter region begins transcription of gene and used for controlling level and location of gene expression. Terminator region causes ending of transcription. Selectable marker that confers antibiotic resistance to organism has expressions and required determination of transformed cells with new gene. Constructs are created by usage of recombinant DNA ways like molecular cloning, restriction digests and ligations. DNA manipulation occurs inside plasmid.

Commonest forms of genetic engineering provide involvement of insertion of new material of genetics randomly inside host genome. Other different techniques allows new material of genetics being inserted at location specifically in mutations generated or genome of host at wanted genomic loci by capability of endogenous genes knocking out. Gene targeting techniques uses targeted homologous recombination for desired changings to endogenous genes specifically. It occurs in relative lower frequencies in animals and plants and needs generally usage of selectable markers. Gene targeting frequencies are enhanced greatly with usage of nucleases engineered like homing endonucleases engineered, created nucleases from effector of TAL or zinc finger nucleases.

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