If the history of man is traced back it is quite evident that from time immemorial onwards diamond had a prominent place in the life of people. Ever since the advent of civilization, man’s search for wealth found several objects that had immeasurable value. He found gold and other metals through mining that had great value. Another major treasure he found through mining was the discovery of precious stones. The sparkling stones in different colors and shape always mesmerized human beings. Men liked it as a valuable asset and possession. Women liked it as a possession and ornament that enhanced their beauty and appearance. Above all possession of a precious stone always elevated the status of a person in a society. Even religious books all over the world had remarks about precious stones.
Among these diamonds are the most accepted valuable precious stone by people all over the world irrespective of many barriers including language, country, nationality, caste, creed and religion. The origin of diamond was found around 6,000 years ago near Krishna, Godavari and Penner rivers during the ancient period where the alluvial deposits that lead to the formation of diamond structures were found. Even though the diamonds were discovered in India the word diamond derived from Greek language which means “unbreakable” or “untamed” due to its superlative physical and optical characteristics and qualities that cannot be altered very easily. The brightness and clarity of a diamond stone primarily determines the quality of a very small sized diamond. Kings of India had given an exquisite status for diamonds. The royal crowns and palaces were adorned with the most precious diamonds as its exact value couldn’t be estimated even today. In Hindu religious rituals performed by the kings’ diamond had a special place. In many places during the reign of king diamonds were recognized as religious icons and symbol of power, glory and prosperity.
Diamonds are formed in the mantle of the earth under high temperature and pressure in the depth of 140 to 190 kilometers. The basic composition of diamond is the carbon element. Diamond is the hardest substance in the world due to its covalent chemical bonding of carbon atoms that cannot be easily break down. A true diamond stone have the brightest white color. A diamond stone with little impurities creates different shades of color including brown, yellow, blue, pink, green according the difference of atomic composition. The chemical composition of boron and nitrogen are responsible for the different color shades in a diamond. The remarkable characteristic of diamond to disperse light results in the different shades of colors.
Apart from the natural formation of diamonds synthetic diamonds are also produced under high pressure and temperature in the diamond industry. Several synthetic diamonds are produced with identical features of diamond named as cubic zirconia stones and silicone carbide forms. They are comparatively less costly than actual diamonds that are accessible to common man in the precious stone market. These diamond simulants that are often mistaken for real diamonds in their appearance can be identified through special gemological techniques that help to distinguish synthetic and natural diamonds. The most widely accepted technologies to recognize real diamonds are spectroscopy, microscopy and luminescence. Short wave ultra violet rays are passed through the gem to determine the origin and clarity. The screening instruments used are diamond sure and diamond view. The diamond mining is done in many countries including India, central and Southern Africa, Canada, Russia, Brazil and Australia.
The marketing of diamond is done through jewellery shops and diamond merchants. The unlimited possibilities of everlasting value of the diamonds had resulted in world famous branded diamond jewelry. The re sale value and the status of possession of diamond makes it a valuable investment by people all over the world.