Category Archives: Leisure

Minecraft: Pocket Edition – A Mobile version of Minecraft

Review: Minecraft: Pocket Edition is a mobile version of Minecraft which was developed by Mojang AB. It was launched initially exclusively for Xperia PLAY for US $6.99 on Google Play on 2011 August 16. It was later released for devices of Android on 2011 October 7.

Android Hardware performance of Minecraft: Pocket Edition is:

Version is “Honeycomb” Android 3.0 (MCPE 0.7.2 and Android 2.3.0). Processor with support of “ARM –v7a code” of calculations of floating point. Data connection is Realms or optional access. Graphics is by Open GL ES 2.0. Storage is 12.5 MB (for world saving 100 MB to 1 GB is used). Other supported devices are Sony Ericsson Xperia X 10i, Sony Ericsson Xperia Play, Sony Ericsson Xperia Mini Pro and Sony Ericsson Xperia Ray.

Playing game: Intention of game is building of virtual realities by players in environment that is sand-box like with developed Console Edition and PC counterparts. Minecraft: Pocket Edition lacks some important elements which are there in different versions of game like hunger and brewing. It lacks dimensions and bosses.  Multiplayer mode is compatible with cross platform between every touch screen devices which has capability of running this Pocket Edition. HUD and different elements have been adapted for gameplay’s mobile standards. Interactions are made possible by means of touch-screen, both Android and iOS versions of Minecraft Pocket Edition have similar gameplay. For complying with gameplay touch-screen disadvantages lots of features were being revised.

System of Crafting uses system of MATTIS. Items had been disposed by icon long tapping on hotbar. For better view of mobile screens, aimed blocks are not outlined but instead they are highlighted. Game had been with akin graphics releases to Minecraft Alpha. Graphics of 0.8.0 updates are equivalent to and better arguably than version of PC with shading and light tinting that is affected by position of Sun.Factors other from PC edition includes: All mobs have little difference from counterparts of PC of theirs. Multiplayer has allowance of 3 methods of connection of player. By means of Minecraft Realms (closed in 0.7.6) and Minecraft Realms (as version of 0.7.1). By means of external user created servers (as version 0.7.4). By means of LAN which allows 10 players on 1 server.

Developing factors:

Alpha: After releasing initially of Android and iOS parallel releasing of updated were conducted with similar features added to both iOS and Android platforms. At the Alpha stage lots of gameplay aspects were being introduced to Pocket Edition that included smelting, and crafting of more items, mobs, blocks and more modes of games for bringing it close to version of PC. As Minecraft Pocket Edition team develops and works very closely, blocks that are released on version of computer is around same span of time for Pocket Edition.

Snapshots: In year of 2013, November 21 there was development building of 0.8.0 being made available to users of Android who conducted addition to community group of Google+. Intention behind this was giving developers ideas of presented bugs and testing app in time ahead of update being released to public. Builds of development were available in testing phase of 0.10.0 from 2014 October 17, in testing phase of 0.11.0 from 2015 April 9 and in testing phase of 0.9.0 from 2014 June 9.

For More information about Minecraft Pocket Edition Android Game

Read more at Gamepedia
Buy from Google Play
Download From 9game.com
On the App Store on Apple iTunes
Play at mob.org
Youtube Video
Download from Appxv.com

Various aspects of Hunting

Even in the pre –historic time it is presumed that man survived on food that he obtained from hunting. The tools he used during pre-historic and ancient times discovered through excavation by the explorers affirms that the very first method done by man in search of his food was hunting. He hunted animals as it was his main source of food. It is presumed that man imitated the predation among animals. He observed when strong animals hunted weaker ones for food. The predation of animals was purely for the source of food. Even though man hunted in early period for food later by the passage of time he began to hunt for recreational purposes and for trading. With the advent of civilization hunting for food in several communities began to be restricted. Some earlier communities relied on vegetarian food and never allowed or encouraged hunting animals. A sector of people who belonged to the lower strata of the society continued hunting for obtaining food and even today in many rural and remote places certain communities pursue hunting. Hunting was also pursued by kings for the sake of recreation.

Many historical evidences affirm that 18,000 years ago hunting was prominent and later on domestication of animals made a change in the hunting gatherer lifestyle style of nomadic tribes. The fossil evidence of spears and other sharp tools confirms that hunting was practiced more than 16,200 years ago. Many tribal societies all in many parts of the world still practice hunting for the source of their food. But soon after the advent of agrarian civilization that was spread in almost all parts of the world and the domestication of animals reduced the hunting. Even though the hunting was reduced as a source of food it was practiced for getting the fur and leather of animals for trade purposes. In the restriction of hunting various religions also played important roles.

The Hindu religion in India propagates the divinity and presence of god in every thing did not restrict hunting animals. According to Hindu mythology even the deities engaged in hunting. Hunting was also considered as kingly sport where valor of a king is assessed by the wild animals hunted. The kshtariya kings of India were quite famous for hunting wild animals. The Mughal kings considered hunting as a practice along with their retinue to affirm their superiority and competitions in hunting wild animals with other kings was a prestigious sport during the ancient time.

In Roman Catholic Christians hunting is prohibited through catholic clergies even from the early centuries. In accordance with the belief of Protestants, Bible does not restrict hunting as per the verses in Act of Apostles and Timothy and hunting has no religious restrictions for protestant community.

The Jewish hunting law based on the Torah, also does not restrict hunting but the category of animals to be hunted is specified. Non preying animals or herbivores can be hunted only for food and not for sports or recreational activity. The Islamic law also follows the principles of Jewish law for hunting non-preying animals and hunting is not considered as sport. Non preying animals can be hunted for food and such food need to be shared to the poor in accordance with the Islamic law.

There are several techniques adopted for hunting including shooting, archery, netting, baiting and battue. The hunting is mostly restricted in many parts of the world mainly for the conservation of environmental balance and to prevent cruelty against the animals.

Many organizations for prevention of cruelty against animals strongly oppose the practice of hunting and as a result of their relentless effort in many countries hunting is banned through legislation and laws.

Holidays and its importance

Holidays are always welcomed by everyone irrespective of any physical, mental, regional, age or any other barriers. All over the world holidays are taken by people in different occasions. In many countries holidays are given as a part of several celebrations. In the professional arena employees consider holiday as refreshing interval before resuming to the regular work pattern. Even though everyone likes and wanted have holiday under the label of several occasions, holiday is most important for children all over the world. The enthusiastic waiting for holidays and spending holidays are true celebration to children.

Holiday is aptly defined as “a period of recreation.” The origin of holiday is believed to have derived from religious attributes in the ancient time. In the ancient period the religious occasions or celebrations were considered important than any other functions. Taking an interval form the daily chores and work for fulfilling religious rites and customs were the initial form of holidays. The emphasis on, “Holy” in holidays refers to the observance of religious rituals with sanctity and purity. Holidays refer originally to the special religious days. According to the historical evidences holidays were observed in accordance with religious rituals and customs. By the passage of time man discovered the recreational element in holidays and according to the prevailing law and systems holidays were began to be created in addition to religious ceremonies and celebrations. Normally holidays in the modern times are designated for the recreational purpose of an individual more than the religious observances. In the modern world holiday is referred as special day for rest and relaxation or recreation. For children it’s a relaxation form from monotonous studies and school activities. For working people it is the time for relaxation and time to restore recuperate the energy drained during the work schedules. Today in many countries holidays are scheduled by the government, religious organizations and institutions.

Today in many institutions and organizations holidays are scheduled for different purposes. Personal leaves, religious holidays, national or governmental celebrations, national holidays in association with the memorial of historical events of a nation or state and secular holidays are some of the major types of holidays observed. Holidays are also given as a tribute to national events, paying homage at the demise of national leaders and relief from unexpected disasters or events.

Even though holidays are given and taken by individuals for various reasons, most of the holidays are given in many countries on basis of religious functions even today. In some countries with extreme climate change holidays are designated according to the climatic changes.

In many western nations holidays are assigned with Christian faith and religious customs. Christmas and New Year holidays are mostly celebrated with long period of holidays observing in accordance with Christian belief and culture in relation to the memory of the Jesus Christ birth and the advent of New Year with new hopes. The Middle East countries were Islam religion is prominent holidays are based on Islamic faith and customs. The two important holidays observed by Islamic nations are, “Eid –Ul –Fitar and Eid –ul –Adha.

Among the holiday celebrations India has the large number of holidays due to the diverse religious celebrations in India. The different cultures and religions in India have different celebrations through out the year in different states. Even though the time of these diverse celebrations vary holidays are assigned to every celebration that consolidates the secularism in the Indian republic.

In places were extreme cold climate during winter season winter holidays and celebrations are observed. In places with extreme hot climate desert festival holidays are conducted.

A holiday observed under any reason is truly a rejuvenating and revitalizing experience for an individual that helps him to face the life with new vision and hope.

Most Important Aspects of Games

Most Important Aspects of Games

Most Important Aspects of Games

The struggle of man to survive on the earth was eventful. Several historical evidences show man’s resistance towards many incidents where he fought for his existence. Even in many circumstances where he had to face disasters his capability to overcome the crisis with ease is an exceptional attribute of human race. To be engaged in any activity that brought him relief and rejuvenation resulted in the creation of games. Games are defined as a form of play or sport. It was invented for the recreation of individuals. In ancient period hunting was recognized a royal game. One of the most important aspects of game is that it is played more by children. The informal games are usually played by children without any particular rules and standards. Games usually played by adults have certain norms with specific scheme and timings. Often several games played by adults are treated as an enjoyment and sometimes it is considered educational tool. Majority of games are not played for any remuneration or for payment. It is only played for relaxation and entertainment. But certain games are played for remuneration and many follow those games as their occupation or profession. Generally games involve both physical and mental activity. Games are normally played for various reasons including education, exercise, development of skills, psychological relaxation, stimulating physical and mental activities and in rare cases as a cure for many diseases. One of the important aspects of games is it is present in every country and culture in different forms.

The definition by the French sociologist Roger Caillois gives all the important ingredients of a game as it is an activity that should have the elements of fun, uncertainty, non productivity, rules, and separation and should be fictitious. According to him the fun element is for the light hearted character of the game, separation meant for uncertainty in time and place, non productivity for not accomplishment of any thing productive or useful, fiction is to differentiate it from reality and the rules that are not strict and different from everyday or any common rules. The other two important definitions that support the definition of game that includes every ingredient put forward by Roger are by Clark. C. and Kevin. J. Maroney. According to Kevin, game is a play with goals and structure. According to Clark, game is an activity among two or more independent decision makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting contexts.

Most of the games have definite tools for playing. The most popular games have ball as it main tool. Foot ball, volley ball, basket ball, cricket, tennis and rugby are the most famous games that are played by majority of the people in the world. Next to games involving balls are card games. There are several types of card games and some of the card games involve wagering or played for getting remuneration. Chess is another important game played all over the world involving mental exercise and brilliance. Tug of war and wrestling need good physical skills. Archery and target shooting are the games that require physical as well as extreme concentration. The most often played games by children are hide and seek, snake and ladder, treasure hunt, toffee collection and musical chair. These games are purely played by children for the sake of funs and entertainment.

Apart from the traditional games with the advancement in technology many sophisticated games have been introduced through online computer games, mobile and video games.

The games had many forms form the pre-historic period onwards and in the primitive age it was developed in to many forms including hunting, racing and warring. In the modern context games play an important role in the stressful and pressurized life. It is definitely and important factor for stress relieving, relaxation and entertainment.

Gambling is the Wagering of Money

Gambling is the Wagering of Money

Gambling is the Wagering of Money

Man found several types of games for their recreation. Many games include physical and mental efforts. Gambling was introduced as a game without any physical or mental effort and as form of time pass. Gambling is mainly based on predictions or guessing on the uncertain outcome of an event. Later on the guess work on an uncertain event was made on betting or wagering. Soon gambling lost the image of a game and became an activity that is purely based on wagering money or for any material object that has value. Earlier gambling was popular among kings or other influential people in the upper strata of the society. Later common man also found interest in gambling. Gambling include three essential elements:- consideration or money or any valuable object, chance and the prize or the wagering amount.

There are several references to gambling in many religions. If the history is traced back many religious texts contains several contexts of gambling. The great epic of Mahabharata, according the Hindu religion contain the incident of gambling between the kings that later resulted in the great Mahabharata war. It shows the influence of gambling among ancient Indians. Another Indian text Arthasastra written in the 4th century BC has reference of gambling and it indicates the necessity of control over gambling and remittance of tax gambling. Other religions like the Christianity, Islam and Jews ever found any moral value in gambling. In many Islamic nations gambling is prohibited and considered as illegal. In some nations gambling have restricted legal validity and strict regulations imposed on gambling. Due to the far reaching consequences of gambling many countries have specified legal jurisdictions in gambling.

On the other hand gambling is recognized as a commercial industry in many parts of the world as an international commercial activity with many gambling centres. Many of these gambling centres conduct gambling not for real money but for the materials that has value. There are specific collectable game pieces for gambling centres that do not involve money in gambling. There are several types of gambling played for the sake of fun in many casinos. Some of them are table games, electronic games including slot machine, video poker, pachinko, bingo and keno. The types of gambling that takes place outside casinos are pull tab, lotteries, dead pool, mahjong and scratch cards. Non casino games include card games such as bridge, basset, piquet, put, liar’s poker, teen Patti and lansquenet. Carnival games include hanky pank and the razzle. Confidence trick category includes shell game and three card monte. Dice games include liar’s dice, hazard, threes, pig, Mexico, Passé -Dix and backgammon. Coin tossing game like head and tail and two up are recognized form of official gambling in some of the Australian Casinos.

Another category of gambling includes several types of betting. The most types of betting are fixed-odds betting, pari-mutuel betting and sports betting. Fixed –odds betting are done during sport events, interactive prediction market in trade and shares and in political elections. Pari-mutuel betting is related to the racing fields. Pari-mutuel betting is normally done in horse racing and greyhound racing. Wagering is done through pari-mutuel pools or through bookmakers. A sport betting is a common form of betting done in sports competitions. The foot ball tournament, tennis and cricket are the major sport forms on which sports’ betting is done. Arbitrage betting is done on the prediction of the outcome of an uncertain event. There are other forms of casual betting among common people on certain events for money or other valuable materials to know the outcome of certain statements relating to ay subject.

According to the statistics in the year 2009 legal gambling market had an estimated value of $335 billion. Gambling may be an activity for time pass for certain class of people who least think about the less fortunate persons who may have a better future with the money squandering under the name of gambling.

Disneyland Disney Theme Park

Childhood is the most colorful period in everyone’s life. The time spent during holidays in holiday spots is always a memory to be treasured and cherished by everyone. In the pressurized and stressful world where everyone pursue various profession to secure comfortable life the childhood memories is always a way of relaxation that brings joy and calm to the mind. The journeys done during the childhood will be the first experience for many people that gave them a different aspect about life. Normally during vacations parents use to take their children to far away tourist destinations where they get an opportunity to mingle with different circumstances that they haven’t had to face before in their routine life. Another favorite destination other than tourist spots is theme parks. There are theme parks constructed in accordance with different themes. The world famous theme park any child would like to go once in their life is undoubtedly the Disney Land in the United States of America. The Disney land is located in Anaheim in California. The Disney land is owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company. This amusement park is the result of the concept by a great visionary and entertainment king, Walt Disney. The Walt Disney productions produced several holly wood classics in the entertainment world.

The concept of Disneyland came to the mind of Walt Disney after had visited various theme park along with his daughters during 1930’s and 1940s. First he thought of constructing a tourist attraction centre near his studio focusing the entertainment for his fans. Later he realized that the place he had chosen for the theme park is small compared to his estimation of theme park in a spacious area. He visualized the several themes to be incorporated under one roof. Focusing on a giant mission he purchase 160 acre of land near Anaheim in the year 1953. The construction in the site began in the year 1954 and was completed in the year 1955. This dream land was opened on July 17th1955. Soon Disney land became the favorite all time destination of children. The biggest advantage of this theme park is it is not only the attraction centre for kids alone but also foe adults who really want to spent time with their kids and for relaxation. Disney land is famous for its rides for those who are adventurous. The most familiar cartoon figures like Mickey Mouse, Donald duck and other cartoon characters like Queen and other characters in Alice in wonderland are recreated in Disney land. The employees dress up like these cartoon figures to entertain children and the visitors. The theatrical theme is adopted by the employees in Disney land. The theatre image provides performance oriented activities by the visitors and the employees. The visitors are referred as “guests” and the employees are referred as cast members. They will perform new themes every day before the crowd and the crowd is referred as audience. While role playing cast members strictly need to follow the script and code of conduct.

Transportation in the unique feature of Disneyland. Miniature rail ways are the main attraction that is provided for the visitors to reach from one destination to another. The food joints with variety of foods are always a centre of attraction kids. There are regular and special fire works shows and live performances in the park. In every October Disney land have Halloween promotion when the entire park is set according to the Halloween theme. The Christmas fantasy parade is the exclusive holiday theme during November and December.

It is an undoubted fact that who ever once been to the Disney land will have a memorable experience. The magic of Disney land is that it brings back the childhood to any one who visit here and make them children once again irrespective of their age and status.

Television and its Uses

The term television is a mix of Latin and Greek language. The term means Far sight. Tele is a Latin word meaning far and visio is Greek which means sight. Television is a means of telecommunication where all types of images particularly moving one, either neutral or colored can be sent and received. Such images may come with or without sound. Television came into existence in the market in the late nineteen twenties. Slowly television occupied in every home, establishments, etc. It became a part of life of man in every aspect. People started recognizing television as a big medium of marketing. It was also a great source of amusement. It helped in imparting information and various reports too. By nineteen fifties television proved to be a means of bringing all kinds of open outlook. Soon television was utilized for screening recorded matters in addition to transmitting matters. Such a change was in nineteen seventies due to the accessibility of video tapes, DVDS, etc. In the modern world one can watch television even through iPlayer and Hulu with the help of internet. Closed circuit television is also another form of television. But broadcast television is universally under usage. Broadcast television is a transformed form of radio broadcasting systems where television signals are transmitted to independent TV receivers’ through high powered radio frequency transmitters.

Earlier television was just a source of entertainment. But gradually it turned out to be a very good source of acquiring knowledge regarding various things or matters on world. It has become a part of our daily life which is indispensable from us. There are many good things about television. Its uses are also many. Disadvantages also exist. Television has made it possible for a person to see and get information about many things or events which occur around the world. In olden it took many days, months or even years to know what happened in a particular corner of the world. Sometimes people even remained unaware of things which took place around them. They were ignorant of many things that surrounded them. In the modern world man is able to view things or events on live through television with the help of artificial satellites. Thus a person who is sitting in one country is able to watch live events happening on other part of the world. The most interesting part of television is that a person need not go out or move around to watch events. He can very well sit in his home and watch the events live irrespective of climate or seasons. Television is helpful in conveying different matters in a much better than a radio. A person can not only hear the sound through the television but he can also watch the objects too. Things are clearer to him now. Television makes people aware of many things which they were ignorant of. It also helps in conveying different type of information to young people as well as older generations. Through television one can telecast useful and informative programs.

Television is actually a source of information as well as entertainment for all kinds of people. The young generations as well as the older ones enjoy television equally. Programs are available for all generations. Programs are categorized under different categories. There are science oriented programs, programs of historical importance, and other programs which emphasize on trade and business. One can even utilize television as a medium of advertising. Such advertisements have indeed helped in marketing products and eventually led to development of trade and commerce. There are also Political based programs in television. Such programs have made people to understand about their leaders and their activities. It is highly important to know that such programs must be telecasted on televisions which do not destroy the feel, quality and spirits of people. Programs must help a person to understand his nature and information and transform himself into a person of quality. Watching too much of television is also not good for health. It has its bad impacts too. Children are badly affected by the uncontrolled use of television. It has been observed that children watching more television often become aggressive for small things. Television has both advantages and disadvantages. Television can be used for our needs in a proper way. Only then it would prove to be useful for us rather becoming a harmful thing for us.

Good Dance Performance is not Limited by any Cultural Barriers

Entertainment is an indispensable part of human life. Leisure time that gives peace and calm to the stressful mind of a person has become a rare factor in the modern world. Many people spent their leisure time engaged in several activities that bring pleasure and peace. There are several art forms people choose as their leisurely activity that provide them entertainment and knowledge at the same time. Dance is an art form that gives enjoyment and knowledge to the viewer and the performer. A dance is defined as the rhythmic body movements with the accompaniment of music. Dance is not confined to a particular area or among certain class of people. Different people with different cultures have dance forms. Variety of dance forms is seen in different countries. Dance is basically an expression of thoughts and emotions through actions. A narration of a story is conveyed through dance. The action involved in a dance form has definite meaning through which a story is narrated. Dance is always considered as a form of communication. This non verbal communication is quite common among animals. Bee dance is a best example of non verbal communication among bees to attract their opposite genders.

The origin of dance forms is not easy to be traced. It is believed to be evolved with the origin of human cultures. The earlier forms of dances were mainly done for narrating myths that were predominant in early human civilization and cultures. There are different genres of dance subjected to different cultures. An African traditional dance is different from Indian traditional dance due to the cultural variations. It is not essential that a story need to be narrated through a dance forms. Mere co ordination of gestures also forms a dance. The gestures gave a relaxation to the body and mind of the performer through the rhythmic body movements. Some coordinated gestures are symbolic. Dance is always considered as part of rituals or ceremonies in different communities. There are several countries were dance forms are indispensable part of celebrations and entertainment.

In India traditional classical dance forms are considered as divine. Lord Shiva or Nataraja is depicted as the deity of dance art forms. It is believed that dance evolved as a means to depict the celestial world or the story of gods according to the Hindu Mythology. According to the Natya sastra or the code for performing classical dance an Indian traditional classical dance is performed through Mudras or specific symbolic actions along with the music. Classical dance in India is considered as the superior dance forms against the traditional folk dances or other dance forms relate to the ceremonies or rituals performed by native communities. The dispute regarding the superiority of classical dance and other traditional dance forms is never ending even till date.

The classifications of dance forms are done globally on the basis of solo dance, partner dance and group dance. The solo performance is done by a single performer, partner dance include performers from opposite gender or same gender and group dance involve main dancers and supporting dancers. Group dances are mainly performed for religious ceremonies and celebrations.

There are several aspects and occupation connected with various dance form. Dance teaching institutions, dance teachers and dance therapist are the dance related occupations. Different types of dance forms are taught by different dance tutors. Choreography is method of setting dance steps and the person who does the choreography is termed as choreographer in the contemporary dance world.

Among the diverse factors in the performance of dance forms, it is an indisputable fact that a good dance performance is not limited by any cultural or linguistic barriers that impart ultimate entertainment to the viewers.

Computer Games and Systems

Games are the most popular leisurely activity among people all over the world. Even though there is no specific age limitation for enjoying a game children have great enthusiastic inclination for games. In olden times children were most fascinated by several outdoor and indoor games that are quite unfamiliar to the technological generation of today. Games in olden days include both physical and mental activities that promote positive attitude and creativity among children. Games in those days were so close to the nature where children always had the opportunity to know the nature. Games at that time served the purpose of an informal school where replica of practical life was taught through such games. The effect of modernization to a great extent affected the children. The playgrounds once a common sight everywhere shrunk to a few numbers. Children were pressurized by education based on heavy syllabus. Academic achievements became the sole interest and target of students and the games were forgotten and were not given any attention. More over the use of technological devices kept the children away form all other leisurely activities.

The advent of computers gave a new dimension to the lifestyle of people. Personal computers became an indispensable part in everyone’s life. Children began to play the computer games spending most of their leisure hour before the personal computers. The software of computer games systems invented a new industry focused on providing entertainment through video or computer games. The personal computer games popular after the invention of micro processor and micro computer. Earlier in the year 1952 the very first form of video game titled OXO for the EDSAC was introduced. Later in the year 1961 MIT students Steve Russel, Martin Graetz and Alan Kotok developed the game of space war on a PDP-1 mainframe computer. This game was invented as a result of statistical calculations. The earlier versions of computer games were based on interactive fiction themes. The text adventure games were activated through command given through the keyboard. The year 1976 and 1977 made remarkable changes in the computer games. In 1976 Will Crowther developed the game adventure for a PDP -11 minicomputer. Later in the year 1977 an elaborate version of adventure was done by Don Woods.

The beginning of 1980’s was the era of graphic deigns. The graphic designs became another essential factor in the new computer games. The newly developed computer games were published through gaming magazines and gaming hobbyist groups. Micro chess that was sold in the year 1977 was the first published micro computer games to the public. Micro chess on 1977 were sold over more than 50,000 copies. By the year 1982 Atari 400, Frogger, centipede, space invaders and IT invaders became the most popular video games. The clone or the imitations of the successful games were published by the unauthorized programs. The cheap low quality versions gave a break down in the console gaming industry in the year 1983. The rise of personal computer gaming marked the end of console game production industry. But in Japan both the console and computer games attracted popularity that again gave a rise to the console games.

By the mid 1990’s contemporary computer gaming with MS dos based programs with the rise of Microsoft windows began to conquer the computer gaming market. By 2011 the computer gaming has adapted the digital technology where the games were communicated through the internet where the user can download it with the optical disc technology. Another great impact of the computer games are the openings of computer games museums in the world. In Berlin the computer games museum holds the history of the computer games right from 1970’s till date. The computer games are the most popular indoor game that has attracted children. The computer games made the adults to have a leisure activity irrespective of their age or profession.

Coin Collection as a Hobby

Money is an important factor in the life of people. Ever since man thought of wealth he wanted some solid material that represented the wealth he made. The introduction of coins made a radical change in the society. In ancient time coins were made out from the metals. They had different size and shapes that denoted the value of each coin. People of different sector in the society have hobbies. Some people are interested in the hobby of coin collection. They are very much fascinated by the ancient type of coins that prevailed during the early centuries. The old coin collection is done by people who have an inherent interest in arts and aesthetics. They believe that coins of different eras depict the history of a particular period. Ancient Rome and Mesopotamia had variety of coins that were discovered by historians and archeologists. The rulers of these countries were conscious about engraving their picture or any other symbol that related to their ruling and kingdom. The ancient coins helped archeologists in the research of kings and queens from the pictures that engraved in the coins. During this medieval period scholars and state treasuries took the custody of gold coins other than the rulers. The common man had metal coins particularly copper coins for transactions. Silver and gold coins were the privilege of upper strata of the society.

During the 14th century the coin collection began as a trend among the upper and privileged class. Italian poet and scholar Petrarch is considered as the first known personality who pursued the hobby of coin collection. Till the 17th and 18th century coin collection remained as an exotic class hobby of high class. Some of the famous coin collectors during the medieval period were Emperor Maximilian of the ancient Roman Empire, Louis XIV and Henry IV of France, Pope Boniface VIII was the famous personalities who pursued this hobby. Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg began a coin cabinet that always created the impression that coin collection could be affordable and pursued by the wealthy and influential.

The coin collection was termed as “Hobby of kings”. There was a tremendous change after the industrial revolution that gave a new face to the society. The middle and lower class of people had emerged as new strong class in the society. The coin collection became a common leisurely activity among the middle class. They were eager to show the wealth and influence they have in the society. The 19th and 20th made the coin collection a popular hobby among the common people. The very first convention of coin collectors was held in Detroit in 1962. The American numismatic association and Royal Numismatic association promoted the convention.

The objective behind the coin is different from the nature of persons. Children pursue this hobby for the sake of fun. Most of the coin collectors are collecting coins as a hobby and as apart of curiosity. Profit making is not a criterion for people who consider this activity for mere sake of hobby. Some find coin collection with profit motive and do this with an investment perspective. Some purchase old coins and acts as hoarders. They will sell the rare coins when there is a high demand for huge values.

Coin collection has different disciplined classifications. Country collection is the collection of coins from a single country. Year collection signifies the coins produced during a particular year. Composition collection indicates the metallurgical compositions of coins. Copy collection includes the collection of copy of an existing coin. The coin condition is major criterion that gives suitable grades to the coin collection. Today coin collection is one of the most popular hobbies in the world and termed as “King of Hobbies” form “Hobby of Kings.


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