Category Archives: Psychology

Dimension of Ethics

The prehistoric age is assumed as a life lead by human beings equal to animals. The culture and civilization was not evolved during the pre historic age. Man during several centuries led nomadic life. He migrated from one place to other due to several diverse factors that affected him. After migrating to suitable places he began to settle down. Later he began to live in groups or communities that shared a common life style. The common life pattern gave way to new civilizations and cultures. New living standards and rules were introduced. Moral codes became an essential part in leading a life that ensured prestige and status in the society. The main purposes of moral codes were to create awareness and guide lines about the right and wrong in the society. The creation of moral codes focused on the welfare of an individual and through them to build a good society. Ethics or the standard codes are regarded as moral code that is a branch of moral philosophy. The term ethics derive from the Greek word “ethos” that means “character”. In every culture the character of an individual and the community was given prime importance in leading a life. The ethics emphasis on moral conduct of an individual that gives him direction about how to behave or act in a society.

There are several definitions given for ethics according to the difference of opinion among the historians and critics. According to the definition of Thomas Paul and Linda Elder ethics are often confused with standards of religious beliefs and standard of law. They further give an accurate definition about ethics that “it is a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what helps or harms sentient creatures”. The Cambridge dictionary defines and definitely affirms that ethics means the rational, optimal and appropriate decision brought on the basis of common sense. This definition of ethics is widely accepted. This means that ethics is not an interchangeable term for morality. But in wider concept ethics can be used as a determining factor for moral value. It is an attitude that gives priority or prominence to social and moral values.

The ethics have four main classifications. Meta ethics, normative ethics, applied ethics and descriptive ethics. Meta ethics defines the theoretical meaning of moral values and the determination value of truth in the moral values. Normative ethics deals with the practical aspect of determining moral values when applicable in action. Applied ethics focus on specific or extraordinary situations when the moral codes are inevitable. Descriptive ethics deals with branch of study about belief of people about morality. The descriptive ethics is also known as comparative ethics. Virtue ethics was propagated by ancient Greek philosophers and thinkers like Socrates, Aristotle and Plato. They instigated and encouraged common people to have a new perspective from ordinary course of living to have new concepts about knowledge and wisdom that require higher standards of ethics. Socrates motivated people to attain self knowledge and discipline to know right and wrong, virtue and vice. He asserted that one who knows what is right will find happiness as ignorance will lead only to folly and sadness in life.

Today ethics is applied in different fields or professions. Business ethics, professional ethics, political ethics, public sector ethics, military ethics, relational ethics, family ethics and bioethics are some of the newly evolved ethics in the modern world. The main purpose of ethics defined or classified under various heads aims at the shaping and conditioning of human behavior. The human psychology and behavior is under continuous shaping and conditioning that give new dimensions to the concept of ethics.

Depression and its Adverse Effects

One of the most complex creations in the world is the human being. The physical appearance is not the way to analyze or assess human beings activities. One of the core factors that promote the life of a human being is his mental and emotional condition. A person with sound mental condition will have a balanced way of life and it reflects in his body and behavior. If a disorder in the psychological or mental condition happens in an individual that will result in changes in the behavior, feelings, thought process and in his or her overall well being. Depression in a person has adverse effects that the term is defined in a wider perspective. It is often termed as dejection or despair in a person that makes him rejects many things he enjoyed or found pleasure earlier. The thought process in a depressed person is gravely affected than the physical condition. He will find negativity in every thing he do and will not be satisfied by the act others. He will be subjected to sadness, forgetfulness, loneliness, emptiness, hopelessness, anxiety, guilty, worried and above all being restless and irritable.

These are some of the emotional symptoms of depression in a person. Energy drop, digestive problems, head ache including acute migraine attack, excess sleep or sleeplessness, fatigue or obesity, lack of concentration, suicidal tendency excess eating or loss of appetite are the physical symptoms of depression. Depression is mainly divided as melancholic and non melancholic. Even though depression is not considered as absolute psychiatric disorder majority of the disorder are due to psychic problems. The psychic problems are often referred as clinical depression.

There are several factors that constitute depression. The change in the life pattern that is difficult to cope or get along by a person may result in depression. Major event in the life of a person that gave only intense mental or physical pain are the most common factor seen in patients who are having depression. Crisis in various forms including financial crisis, complex relationships, complex, troubles in relationship, lack of mental and emotional attachment between family members, lack of good and healthy friendship, lack of opportunities to share or discuss problems, unemployment, pressure and stressing profession and family, separation and catastrophic injury are the most identified causes that make a person fall in to depression. Depression occurred from intense pain, Addison’s disease, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis are counted as non-psychiatric depression. Hypothyroidism or reduction in the activity of the thyroid gland also promotes depression that most commonly mistaken as psychic disorder.

The psychiatric disorders that constitute depression are anxiety disorder where an individual is over anxious about everything, bipolar disorder that gives elevated and fluctuated energy levels, difference in cognitive ability and mood swings and borderline personality disorder resulting in depressive mood. The use of alcohol, drugs, cigarette smoking, and addiction to particular things or people are some of the external factors that contribute depression or traits of depression in an individual. In professionals stress and anxiety related disorders are most commonly found later ends in high stage of depression that requires proper medication and therapies.

Today there are several therauptic interventions are used for the recuperation of depressed people. Holistic treatment is another form of therapy that focuses on absolute cure of a patient avoiding the use of medicines. Treatments with medicines are available in the extreme disorder case in the hospitals.

Form various researches conducted all over the world the medical practitioners and therapists agree to one common factor that create depression. The mental illness originated from various mental and physical factors definitely changes the mental equilibrium of an individual that will result in depression irrespective of age, class or any other social status.

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