It is defined that human being is a bundle of emotions. Depending on the circumstances human beings react with varied emotions or feelings. One of the most important feelings every one wanted to have is happiness. Creating or spreading happiness among people and every where is not an easy task. The positive energy in happiness never let down any one in the world. Even the worst criminal or a person with extreme cruelty in mind seeks happiness in one way or the other. There are several factors that promote happiness. The reasons for happiness vary from one another. It may be psychological, physical, biological, religious and philosophical. Happiness is defined as “mental or emotional state of ell being characterized by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy”.
The importance of happiness is widely accepted by people everywhere in the world irrespective of any physical and emotional barriers. In the declaration of independence in United States state the importance of happiness as, “happiness is such of fundamental importance to the human condition that, life, liberty and happiness is deemed to be unalienable rights. The sustainability of human life is based on happiness. Many thinkers and philosophers emphasis on the importance of happiness, by stating it as the basis of any good life. An accepted fact about happiness is that it is the well being of any person. The other aspects relate to the concept of happiness is that of quality and contentment of life and the element of flourishing in the state of well being and joy. For attaining happiness it is important to avoid unpleasant experiences and events and to retain pleasant incidents.
Being content in the life with what a person has is another important aspect of finding happiness. Having deep satisfaction with every thing that comes to the life respective of good and bad things gives immense happiness to a person according to great thinkers and philosophers. Ancient sages and spiritual leaders state that eternal happiness is found by people who take good and bad thinks alike in their life. Another aspect of finding happiness is in finding equilibrium between cognitive ability and emotional capabilities. Even though there is cognitive element is taken for evaluating happiness prominence for evaluation of happiness is given for emotions. In the scientific methods and research conducted for evaluating happiness resulted in the finding that genetics or hereditary plays an important role in the element of happiness in a person. Sonja Lyubomirsky states that 50 percent of human happiness is contributed by genes, 10 % is the result of circumstances and the rest of the 40% is the contribution of self control. This condition is alike in human beings all over the world. The major factor that determines happiness is the value and intensity of relationships. The bond between relationships increases the level of happiness in every human being. The bond between parents and children are a good example for happiness. There are several definitions given to happiness in different contexts. Philosophical definitions given in the approach of happiness is that it is an eternal bliss that come form within an individual. According to various religions true and eternal happiness comes from the relation with the supreme power and human beings. All other physical and worldly happiness is only momentary.
In the modern materialistic world happiness is most commonly weighed in the economic status. Financial freedom is considered as the major aspect of happiness in the modern world. Apart from the definitions the state of happiness has great effect on the mental and health condition of the people. In any relation where unconditional love exists happiness occurs naturally.
Fundraising or Fund Raising for Genuine Reason
Earth is a beautiful place to live. The beauty of earth is described by poets and writers through different stories and poems. It is believed that human life on earth is precious one in comparison to animals or other living things. But it is may not be the true circumstances in every context. When there are people who are fortunate enough to have all the luxuries and other comforts in life, a major sector or less fortunate group of people thrive hard to find a livelihood for survival. In all most every part of the world there are people who suffer from poverty, financial crisis and from grave diseases. Even today there is large sector of people who don’t have any means to fulfill their basic needs of food, clothing and water. Even in these dark grave situations there is always a ray of hope to help or enlighten the conditions of the deprived.
Several people and organizations that have genuine concern for the unfortunate section in the society extend help to them in many ways. Fund raising or contribution is one such way that is most accepted way of aid extended to the poor and needy. Fund raising is mainly done for gathering money from people for fulfilling many necessities of the downtrodden sections. Normally funds are raised for providing healthy food and for the expenses for the patients who do not get any aid from any source including their family members. The very essential form of fund raising practiced in different parts of the world is to ask aid from individuals going to their houses or offices. This form of fund raising is practiced by individuals who are concerned about their fellow beings and do not get any other source of help from others. Gradually several philanthropic organizations and charitable trusts took the responsibility of fund raising for the betterment of the society.
Fund raising is done for several purposes including disaster relief, social issues where and when the human rights are violated, other humanitarian concerns, academic achievement and for research process and methods. The fund raising process is often done by non profit organizations. Religious and philanthropic groups and organizations play a major role in the fund raising. Research organizations, public broad casters and political campaigns also conduct several fund raising programs for several social issues. Today environmental preservation is another major concern for the future generations and many programs are being conducted for raising fund for environment protection.
Another sector of fund raisers includes professional fund raisers. They are different from non profit organizations as they take a percentage of fund raised as their professional charge. There are entertainment groups who raise fund through conducting entertainment programs. Some entertainment groups charge like the professional fund raisers and some do programs only for raising money for the needy at their expenses. Genuine non profit organizations never engage professional fund raisers or groups who charge commission of raised fund. Professional fund raisers are not categorized as non- profit organizations and they are considered as third party who are paid for their activity. Fund raising professionals or development officers are the staff or non profit organizations who do the fundraising for free and do not expect any return for their act.
Fund raiser events are organized by nonprofit organizations. Many political, religious, charitable, non government institutions and individuals who are wealthy and have the mindset to provide for charity organize fund raising events and programs. The foundation stone of any charitable or fund raising programs is the building up of relationships. The maintenance of donor relationship is another important factor in fund raising. Many organizations formally thank the donors who provide contribution to higher level and always extend their willingness to help the poor.
The old concept of “an aid given to a needy one is the aid provided to God” is worth in fundraising projects by organizations and individuals who do not expect anything in return.
The prehistoric age is assumed as a life lead by human beings equal to animals. The culture and civilization was not evolved during the pre historic age. Man during several centuries led nomadic life. He migrated from one place to other due to several diverse factors that affected him. After migrating to suitable places he began to settle down. Later he began to live in groups or communities that shared a common life style. The common life pattern gave way to new civilizations and cultures. New living standards and rules were introduced. Moral codes became an essential part in leading a life that ensured prestige and status in the society. The main purposes of moral codes were to create awareness and guide lines about the right and wrong in the society. The creation of moral codes focused on the welfare of an individual and through them to build a good society. Ethics or the standard codes are regarded as moral code that is a branch of moral philosophy. The term ethics derive from the Greek word “ethos” that means “character”. In every culture the character of an individual and the community was given prime importance in leading a life. The ethics emphasis on moral conduct of an individual that gives him direction about how to behave or act in a society.
There are several definitions given for ethics according to the difference of opinion among the historians and critics. According to the definition of Thomas Paul and Linda Elder ethics are often confused with standards of religious beliefs and standard of law. They further give an accurate definition about ethics that “it is a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what helps or harms sentient creatures”. The Cambridge dictionary defines and definitely affirms that ethics means the rational, optimal and appropriate decision brought on the basis of common sense. This definition of ethics is widely accepted. This means that ethics is not an interchangeable term for morality. But in wider concept ethics can be used as a determining factor for moral value. It is an attitude that gives priority or prominence to social and moral values.
The ethics have four main classifications. Meta ethics, normative ethics, applied ethics and descriptive ethics. Meta ethics defines the theoretical meaning of moral values and the determination value of truth in the moral values. Normative ethics deals with the practical aspect of determining moral values when applicable in action. Applied ethics focus on specific or extraordinary situations when the moral codes are inevitable. Descriptive ethics deals with branch of study about belief of people about morality. The descriptive ethics is also known as comparative ethics. Virtue ethics was propagated by ancient Greek philosophers and thinkers like Socrates, Aristotle and Plato. They instigated and encouraged common people to have a new perspective from ordinary course of living to have new concepts about knowledge and wisdom that require higher standards of ethics. Socrates motivated people to attain self knowledge and discipline to know right and wrong, virtue and vice. He asserted that one who knows what is right will find happiness as ignorance will lead only to folly and sadness in life.
Today ethics is applied in different fields or professions. Business ethics, professional ethics, political ethics, public sector ethics, military ethics, relational ethics, family ethics and bioethics are some of the newly evolved ethics in the modern world. The main purpose of ethics defined or classified under various heads aims at the shaping and conditioning of human behavior. The human psychology and behavior is under continuous shaping and conditioning that give new dimensions to the concept of ethics.
Importance of Elderly Care
One of important characteristics that differentiate human beings from animals is the strength of relationships. Unlike animals that rare their offspring to a particular stage of growth human beings have strong bonding between the relations till the end of the life. The relationship between the parents and children is the most valuable human relation in the world. The emotional bonding between parents and children or the elders to the younger ones are beyond explanation. In earlier time these relations were considered as sacred or with purity. Grown ups believed that it is their duty and responsibility to look after their younger ones till they became capable of doing things independently. The younger ones believed that it is their duty to give back care and security to the elder one at their old age. Unfortunately in the modern world people are so self centric and they lack in giving care to the elderly people. Most of the youngsters focus only on their future and believe that it is not their responsibility to look after the elders.
Senior citizens or people who are above 60 years are unfortunately neglected by their family members or younger ones. The elder care or the elderly care is the complete fulfillment of special care for the senior citizens. The special care includes the fulfillment of special requirements that an aged person cannot complete without an external help. When a person reaches at his 60’s the health condition differs from his younger age. Right from the vision to loosing strength of internal organs are the signs of ageing that make the person weak doing even the daily routine. Giving special care for health related problems is the prime concern for an elderly care. The assistance given for the elders differs depending on the cultural and geographic differences. Even in the same country there are regional variations in providing elderly care. It is a pathetic condition were the elderly care once extended by the family members at their old age is now provided by charitable institutions and by the government in many countries. The concept of atom or small families that include only parents and children decreased the value of big families where elder ones were given proper care and attention in their daily needs. The dissolution of marriages, broken families and single parenting are some of reasons that did not extend or ensured elderly care. The lack of elderly care is quite common and prominent in western nations were people like to have a liberated and independent life without any ties of responsibility. Today even in developed nations including Asian countries were relationships are valued most is not giving proper care to the elder ones. In India family relations were valued with sanctity is now diminishing to a considerable level as the graph of abandoned elderly people rise to a higher level. Most of the people who are pursuing pressurized carriers do not get enough time to spend for their elders. Majority of them are compelled to leave their parents or elders to old age homes or for other alternative accommodations. Another category is those who send the elder people to institutions or organizations meant for old has the concept of not taking up any burden as their responsibility.
Another aspect of elder care is the women at an old age need more care and security. Unfortunately the major sections of people who are neglected at the old age are women if the statistics world wide is taken. Today elderly people are given training to take care of them independently. In many countries legal aid are available for the senior citizens to get maintenance through legal procedures form their children or any one who is liable and bound to take care of the elder ones. True value of relationship happens only in applying unconventional love to family relations.
In the early period of a man’s life acquiring food was the most significant part of their life. Much importance was given to the achievement of food as it was one of the basic requirements for the existence of life. Food was their basic requirement other than water. They spent most of their time hunting food for themselves. But later in their part of life they slowly gained knowledge that other than food there are things which though are not crucial for their existence but are vital for relieving themselves. Such things could indeed make their life more easy and comfortable. Such things are termed as treat in the current world. Such things considered as treat became their major requirements in the later periods. Thus treats were replaced with requirements. What things were considered as luxuries in earlier periods slowly turned to be more essential things. Thus in the present day things of luxuries which were considered not of much importance for survival were given the name of requisites. Radio is one such instance. Years back radio was considered to be a thing of luxury but later as education reinforced inquisitiveness of various things it proved to be a product imparting much information to all the people around. Today radio is being considered as one of the important sources of knowledge. Other than giving information regarding various matters it also plays an important role in entertaining people. In a similar way different vehicles were also considered as a thing luxury which was earlier possessed by only rich people. Trade and business developed with the society and many things of luxuries converted into things of requirement. It fully flourished and many industries were set up in different countries of the world.
There was an enormous change in the action of man. Slowly people mostly those who were engaged in business understood the importance of different vehicles in their life and started using it. It made them easy to cover long distances and their physical effort was much reduced. Thus it became a requirement and no more remained to be a luxury. Vehicles were later considered to be an essential part of the life of man which helped to reach his destination with much ease and lesser time. In certain circumstances some of the things have been acknowledged as requirements on the basis of the thoughts of societal position. In order to maintain the position in a society a person may sometimes use some of the things used as luxuries earlier as his necessities in the future. For such people who give more importance to their position in the society normally use luxuries as their necessities and they try to maintain such a custom of using such luxuries as essentials. It becomes more or less an indispensable thing to be separated from their life which had helped them to maintain a good position in the society. They mostly do this for emphasizing their power in the society. Thus only to keep a good status among other people they start using some of the things which were considered to be as luxuries in their early life as necessities in the later part of their life. Hence it can be clearly viewed from various instances that things which were luxuries in the early life turned out to be luxuries in the subsequent part of life of man. Man actually understands that if such things are obliterated from their life it would not make much difference as far as his existence is considered. But at the same time these things would obviously make a difference in his soothing life and the situation which he had maintained so far. In near future there would only be an increase in the conversion of such luxuries as our necessities. People in early days only thought of acquiring things which were necessary for their survival like food, water, etc. But as time passed they discovered that there are things which are useful in making their life at ease. Each finding or innovation is considered to be essential things in the later life of man when he actually realizes the importance and the use of such things which makes or brings a lot of difference in their mode of living. If we look around we would find that things which are more pleasing to our eyes too have become essential part of our life. Hence it would not be wrong to say that luxuries of today are the necessities of tomorrow.
Society has as set of rules and standards that is pursued by the people for having a disciplined life. The rules and standards create law which is a higher level of discipline. The law helps the people to be conscious about their responsibilities and duties. A citizen of a country must be dutiful towards him and to others. The ultimate aim of a law system is to provide justice and to maintain peaceful life among the people in a society. The welfare of the citizens is the prime concern of a legal system. When there is a breach occurs in the peaceful life by an illegal activity law gives the proper remedy for it through various mode of punishment or warning. When there is a threat to the life of a person through an illegal activity it amounts to crime. A crime occurs when a bodily injury is inflicted on a person by another. This infliction of bodily injury is regarded as criminal act. A person who commits the criminal activity is termed as a criminal. There are broader aspects of crime depends on the intensity of the criminal activity done. Minor injuries that occur from tiff between people are categorized as minor offences. At the same time if a bodily injury results in grievous physical deformity that makes a person unable to live a normal life it is considered as major or serious criminal offences. The most serious criminal activity that renders the capital punishment of death sentence is murder. There are several elements that constitute a criminal activity from a criminal.
A scientific branch of study in the behavior of a criminal is termed as criminology. The circumstances or the various factors that made a criminal to do a crime are thoroughly studied through different scientific process in criminology. Criminology is followed mainly by sociologists, psychiatrists, psychological counselors, social anthropologists, investigating officers and social rehabilitation centres. During mid 18th century and the 20th century the school of thoughts developed the concepts of criminology. The scientific study of nature, cause, result or the extent and depth of a criminal activity done by a criminal was studied carefully in the school of thoughts in a limited scope in the earlier studies. The basics of criminology found in the school of thoughts were developed in various forms in the contemporary criminological studies. The criminology emphasis in the exact elements that constituted the crime. It is found that from the genetics to the social circumstances instigates the person to commit a crime. The psychological factors are the other UN avoidable prominent elements that results in a crime. Sudden provocation and mental disability are the mostly found major characteristics in a criminal. Sociologists and philanthropists give emphasis on the several measures to be taken to reform a criminal abstaining him from doing a criminal activity. People who have committed a crime accidentally without any intention for committing such an offence may be reformed to a certain extent. Several psychological counseling processes are required to reform such people to bring them back to the normal life.
The crimes that occur in a society is prevented by giving the offender the apt punishment that will be an exemplary act and warning that to a certain extent prevents others to commit such crimes. This punishment theory is applicable for heinous crimes committed by an offender. Such a criminal with heinous mentality cannot be reformed through normal psychological aspects. The legislation for giving strict punishments for inhuman criminal activities definitely serves as a serious warning to the anti social elements in a society. A person who commits a crime intentionally does not deserve the sympathy or caring from a society. The most apt theory for heinous criminals is the biblical theory of “Eye for Eye and tooth for tooth.”