Category Archives: Technology

Introduction to Solar Power Technology

Solar Power is conversion of sunlight to electricity, directly either using (PV) Photovoltaic or indirectly using (CSP) concentrated solar power. Systems of concentrated solar power use mirrors or lenses and tracking systems for focusing large sunlight area to small beams. Photovoltaic converts light to electric current by utilizing photovoltaic effects. Photovoltaic was solely initially used as electricity sources for medium and small sized applications. This is from calculators powered by 1 solar cell to homes remote being powered by rooftop off-grid PV system. As costs of solar electricity falls, numbers of grid connected PV solar systems have grown to millions. Utility scaled solar power stations with megawatts in hundreds are built. PV solar is rapidly becoming low carbon, inexpensive technology for harnessing renewable energies from Sun.

Emerging technologies after photovoltaic cell (PV cell) or solar cell: Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV): This system employs sunlight being concentrated onto surfaces of photovoltaic for purposes of electrical power productions. Opposite to conventional PV systems, it uses curved mirrors and lenses for focusing sunlight to small, but too much highly efficient multi- junction solar cell. Solar concentrators of many varieties are used. These are mounted often on solar trackers for keeping focal points on cells with movement of sun across sky. Luminescent Solar Concentrators plus PV solar cell is regarded as CPV system. CPV are useful because they improve PV solar panels efficiency drastically. Floatovoltaics: This is emerging form of the PV systems which floats on surfaces of tailing ponds, irrigation canals, quarry lakes and water reservoirs. This system in turn reduces requirement of land area valued and drinking water saved. This water could be lost by means of evaporation. Then there is showing of high efficiencies of solar energy conversions. This is as panels have been kept at cool temperatures than their presence on land. Hybrid Systems: This combines CSP and CPV with each other or with different forms of generations like biogas, diesel and wind. Generation’s combined form enables systems modulating power outputs as demanding functions or reducing at least fluctuating solar power natures and consumption of fuel non-renewable. These hybrid systems are often found on islands.

CSP/CPV system: Novel solar CSP/CPV hybrid system is proposed. It combines concentrator photovoltaic with non-PV technologies of concentrated solar powers. This is called also concentrated solar thermal. ISCC system: There is combination of CSP with gas turbines. In this, 25 megawatt CSP parabolic trough arrays supplement much large 130 megawatt combined turbine cycle gas plant. PVT system: This is Hybrid PV/T system. It is called Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Solar Collectors. This converts solar radiations to electrical and thermal energy. This system combines Solar PV modules with solar thermal collectors in complementary ways. CPVT system: It is Concentrated Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid system being same as PVT system. This utilizes concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) in place of conventional PV technologies. This combines it with solar thermal collectors. PV diesel system: This combines PV system with diesel generator. Combination with different renewables has been possible that includes wind turbines. PV-thermoelectric system: Thermovoltaic, thermoelectric devices convert temperature differences in between dissimilar materials to electric currents. Solar cells use high frequency radiation parts only. Low frequency heat energy is wasted. Plenty of patents regarding use of the thermoelectric devices in solar cell’s tandem have been filed. Idea is increasing efficiencies of combined thermoelectric/solar system for converting solar radiations to useful electricity.

Parabolic trough in turn consists of linear parabolic reflectors which has concentration of light to receivers being positioned through focal line of reflector. Receiver is tube being positioned just right above middle of parabolic mirrors. This is filled with working fluids.

Electronic Ballast: Its Overview, Importance and Working

People have grown up with sounds and sights of lamps being fluorescent that buzzes too life after some attempts. As new waves of saving energy appliances grips world, technology makes lamps fluorescent shrinking in thickness and reducing attempts numbers done by lamps shining their brightest. Presently, lots of homes use CFL lamps energy Saver and fluorescent tubes starting provision of light at moments they have been switched on. This light production instantaneously is achieved by uses of electronic ballasts. The electronic ballast is device that controls operating currents and starting voltages of lighting devices. It is built on principles of discharge of electrical gases. It refers to circuit parts that limit current flow by means of lighting devices. This varies from becoming single resistor too complex bigger device. In few lighting fluorescent systems like dimmers, it is responsible also for controlling flowing of electrical energies for heating electrodes of lamp.

Basic of Electronic Ballast: For lighting devices based on working of electric gas discharges, gas ionization in tubes are needed. Phenomenon taking place at high potential relative difference or/and temperatures other than normal lamp operating conditions is there. After arcs are set up, conditions brought down to normal are there. For achieving this, 3 ways of types are employed generally: rapid start, pre-heat and instant start. In pre-heat, lamp electrodes are heated to the high temperatures before voltages are impressed on them by help of starters. Ballasts instant start was developed for starting lamps with no flashing or delay. There is using of high initial voltages instead of temperature raised. Ballasts rapid start make trade-off in between instant start and pre-heat. This uses separate windings set for initial electrodes heating for less duration. Then there is using relative low voltages for starting lamp. Other type is programmed start ballast. This is variant of rapid start ballast. Any of the principles of starting could be used in ballasts. When gas is unionized initially, it offers high path to current resistance. But after occurrence of ionization, arc sets up, resistance drops to too much lower values thereby acting almost like short circuits. In case, this entire current are allowed passing through lamps, then lamp will either cause failure of power supply or burn out. So, ballast requires performing current limitations.

Electronic Ballast working: Electronic Ballast primitively employed principles generally of input power rectification and smoothening waveforms by passage of it by means of simple filters such as electrolytic capacitors. Rectifier converts AC to DC waveforms. Electronic Ballast improved presently is based generally on SMPS topologies. 1st step is rectification of input power. Then chopped signals for increasing frequencies. This ballast types operates in between 20 kHz to 60 kHz. Different ballasts such as magnetic ballast operates generally at line frequencies that is around 50 Hz to 60 Hz. There is suffering from problems like humming and flickering sounds. This is nuisance to ambience few times. Same circuit design ideologies have been implemented by utilizing notes of application provided by datasheets chip manufacturers. Rationale at back of frequency increasing in Electronic Ballast is that efficiency of lamp rapidly increases with change of frequency from 1 kHz to 20 kHz. After this, there is gradual improvement till 60 kHz. As operating frequencies of lamps are increased, current amount needed for producing similar light amount must be reduced. This is when compared with the line frequency that increases lamp efficiency. Performance increased at high frequencies is that at high frequencies AC cycle’s time period is shorter than time relaxation in between deionization and ionization consecutive of gases with alternating currents. So, ionization densities in lamps are mostly held constantly near optimal conditions operating over entire period of AC.

Fusion Technology – Toroidal Magnetic Confinement Fusion and its merits

For producing self-sustained fusion reactions, deuterium and tritium plasma should be heated to nearly 100 million degrees. This needs thermal loss minimally and heating devices powerful. For sustaining such temperatures, hot plasma should be kept at far distance from reactor walls. Since, plasma is electrically charged gas, so it could be contained or held by magnetic fields. It allows plasma for being controlled, heated and held by complex cages of magnets. This enables escaping of neutrons because they do not have electric charges. In tokamak plasma is in turn held in vessel being doughnut. By using specialized coils, magnetic fields are generated that causes particles of plasma for running around inside spirals. This is with no touching of chamber walls.

“Toroidal Magnetic Confinement Fusion” is modern and advanced technology which is most important approach for European Fusion research. This is at heart of ITER experiments. Reactions taking place in vessels isolates plasma from surroundings. It has torus or shape of doughnut which is continuous tube essentially. There are magnetic fields confined. Examples are poloidal fields and toroidal fields. Magnetic fields are generated by the electromagnets being located about chamber of reactor and by electrical currents that flows in plasma itself. Current is induced partly by solenoids at centres of torus. This acts as winding primary of transformer. Magnetic field resulting keeps particles of plasma and their energies away from wall of reactor. For achieving total fusion power’s output in tritium deuterium reactor, 3 conditions should be fulfilled: Confinement time for energy of reactor must be of order of 1 second. Very high temperature ranging more than 100 million degrees. Particle density of plasma must be 1022 particles per cubic metre at least. For controlling plasma there is requirement of full understanding of all its properties. Examples are, how heat is conducted, how there is losing of plasma particles and stability and how impurities (particles unwanted) are prevented from rest plasma. 1 amongst important challenges in fusion researches is maintaining plasma temperatures. Impurities cool plasma. Ways should be found for extracting them. Plasma must be heated by inducing electrical currents by arrangements of transformers. But heating is additionally needed for reaching high temperature needed. It includes beam injection of high energetic fuel fusion particles like tritium and or deuterium. These particles on collision with the particles of plasma give their energy to them. There are radio frequencies heating in which high powered radio waves have been absorbed by particles of plasma.

Merits: Abundant Fuel: Fusion fuels basically from which there is generation and extraction of tritium and deuterium are lithium and water. 70% of surface of earth has been covered with water. Rest 30% is covered with rock. There are enough quantities of deuterium for years in millions. There is lithium easily mined for years numbered several hundreds. Deuterium is found in all places of earth. There is 0.333 grams of deuterium in every 1 litre of water. We carry lithium around. It is battery component in laptops and mobile phones. This is readily extractable and plentiful also. Global impact on environment is very low because no Carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions: A 1000-megawatt fusion electric power plants consumes nearly 100kg of deuterium and 3 tonnes of lithium naturally. This is in 1 year thereby generating 7 billion kilowatt-hour. For generating similar electricity amounts, coal fired power plants require 1.5 million tonnes of coal. Fossil Fuels uses produce pollutants, which includes carbon dioxide and nitrous oxides. Particularly, increasing carbon dioxide levels in atmospheres because of burning of fossil fuels have been contributors significantly to global warnings. There is a day-to-day operation of power station fusion that requires radioactive materials transportation.

Multicore Memory Coherence

In past decades limits of heat dissipation had have halted driving to high and higher key frequencies. Transistor densities have grown continuously. CPUs with 4 and more cores had have become in turn common in server class and commodity class general purposed processor markets. For improving further use and performance of transistors available more efficiently, the architects restore to large and medium scaled multicores in industry (example, Intel TeraFLOPS, Tilera ) and in academia (example TRIPS, Raw ) both. Industry pundits predict 1000+ cores in near future. Queries arise about processes of programming of massive multicore chips. Abstraction of memory shared stands as sine qua non for general purposed programming. Whilst architectures with models of restricted memory (notably GPUs mostly) had have enjoyed success immensely in particular applications (like rendering graphics). There are many programmers who prefer memory shared model. There are small scaled general purposed commercial multicores which support this hardware abstraction. Important queries are about efficient provision of shared coherent memory on scales of 1000s or 100s of cores.

Main barriers to scaling memory current architecture are off-chip memory bandwidth wall. Off-chip bandwidth in turn grows with packaged pin densities. This scales too much slowly than on-die transistor densities. Rising core counting means high memory accessibility rates. Limitations of bandwidth need more data being stored on chips for reducing numbers of off chip accessibility of memory. Presently multicores integrate monolithic (large shared) last levels on chip caches. Caches shared, however, have no scaling beyond few relative cores. Their requirement of power of large caches (that grows quadratically with sizes) excludes usage in chips on scales of hundreds of cores (example is, Tilera Tile-Gx 100 which do not have cache shared).

Directory Cache Coherence: There are scales in which bus based mechanism fails. Traditional solution for this situation and dilemma is Directory –based Cache Coherence (DirCC). This is central logical directory coordinate. It is shared amongst per-core caches. Each core caches should negotiate shared or accessibility exclusive to all cache lines by means of coherence protocol. Main benefits of directory based coherence protocols are (a) data is used only by 1 core and fits in cache, then writes and reads both are fast because they are locally accomplished (b) data is very infrequently written but it is often read and concurrently by lots of cores, then fast local in turn reads amortizing high costs relatively of writes infrequently.

Execution Migration: Like architectures of RA, Execution Migration Machine (EM2) architectures maximize on chip effective cache capacities by division of address spaces. This is amongst per core caches. This allows all addresses being only cached at its home unique core. EM2 exploits however, spatiotemporal localities by bringing the computations to loci of data in place of different ways around. When threads require accessibility to cached address on different cores, then hardware migrates efficiently execution thread context to cores where memories are cached. Here execution continues. Schemes are there which designs performance improvement of cache coherence based designed. Schemes are there which requires interventions being user levelled. Very unlike these schemes, thread should migrate for accessing memory being not assigned to cores it runs on. In EM2 the migration is mechanism only which provides memory coherence and sequential semantics. Library Cache Coherence: Achilles Heel of EM2 and RA lies in support lack for replication of temporary write/read data or read-only data permanently.

Data replication with compiler intervention or conscious programmer in turn results in improvements of performance significantly. At same time duration, directory cache coherence thereby incurs round trip multiple delays. This is when data shared is written also. This relies on tricky protocols for expensive verification and implementation.

Mobile Computing – 4G or 4th generation an Overview

4G or Fourth Generation Mobile Computing is still evolving. But countries had have started already in committing towards its implementation. India says that it shall leapfrog from 2G to 4G. It bypasses 3G technology. WiMax technology is on last legs as because it provides no support to VoIP. Transfers of data shall happen at Speeds of LAN of 100Mbps. World is thereby looking forth towards 4G for transformation of way different people conduct regular business. Once there is technology evolution hand phones being used in the 4G mobile computing could be all in 1 device for usage in education, science, arts, network games, activities of business outside offices, Visual Communication, daily life, video/music content downloading and merchandise settlement and purchase.

Overview of Medical Applications of evaluation by providers of potential service: Stability and certainty of connections was raised as important requirements on infrastructure of communication. This is for realizing that medical services take benefits of mobile computing. It is feasible for providing remote full-fledged medical treatments easily. This is by means of high quality images being enabled by stable uninterrupted computing, fast transmission speeds. This is regarded more important and indispensable in medical fields. It is known widely that medical service provision is subjected to plenty of regulatory and legal restrictions. Services, consequently, offered by entities privately are very limited currently. This hinders new service’s flexible offering in medical fields. The issue till date remains unsolved. There are no changes significantly soon expected either. As per opinions of providers of potential services, 1st step being taken is developing the services and technologies. They should provide education to medical industries such that consumers share recognition which high quality medical services provide. The provision is secure and safe by means of medical electronic networks and records.

There is Ultimate Content Player Simply by providing instructions to video names (the name need not necessarily be precise, inputs ambiguously shall suffice) of choices of users (broadcasting TV programs in news, concerts, past, movies or dramas). This is by means of voice inputs. Users have abilities of watching it on mobile terminals by means of streaming from networks at any place desired and at any time desired. Charges for contents must be decided by taking into consideration rights holder requests, location, viewing time, number of user accessibility (popularity), quality of video, and copies number. These are present on spots and if it is agreed by users, video must be having viewer availability. When users desire for viewing movies for using spare times (like during business trips), you search data and information which concerns movies being shown currently and seeing previews on players. In case you decide watching entire movie in cinemas, there is possibility of searching theatres, purchasing electronic tickets, reaching from present location before movie starts and making seat reservations. Videos are viewed in trains on displays being spectacle type. This is suspended for moments when train changes. Users of Navigation system have abilities of gaining accessibility to information following services from insides whilst being in moving vehicles. Information is adequately provided depending on user’s properties, time and location. Users have abilities of receiving discounts in markets by presentation of retrieved information from above. Service of Location information is traffic information and locating route guide. Service of vehicle information is vehicle tuned up and automobile information. Service of entertainment is radios and TV programs. Service of controlling information is controlling vehicles in case of accidents and earthquake. Service of emergency information is sudden illness and accident.

Service of logistics information is parcel delivery and others. Mobile ordering enables easy buying of products or getting information by holding mobile terminals towards printed materials.

Interactive Public Display: Its Importance and Applications

Our societies are continuously making journey forth towards scenario of interactivity. It is very important for being sure that marketing of your becomes same. Interactive Public Display is greatest way for beginning movement towards technology forefront with no going too fast too far. Interactive Public Display increases Relationship Traditional Displays and Retail Conversion that is comprised of banners, different forms of static or printed graphics and signage. There are ever-growing demands and requirements for providing users with experiences of interactivity with no losing sites of old and traditional best practices and marketing methods. Whilst there is in transition, it is extremely important that there should not be frustration or alienating masses which just begins transitions towards interactivity. When one integrates interactive touch screen displays to future or existing digital arsenal, then you engage customers in conversation being relative to desires and needs of theirs. Retail traffic in shops and local stores throughout country is searching for services and goods. You can become one who communicates right messages to them at right times. Then you become person who receives cash reward in hand.

Interactive Public Display provides retailers tools which are education and exciting both for customers. Users are encouraged for “touching and reaching out” window TV displays. This is that time when there is beginning of magic. Communication with help of touch screen displays is easily acceptable and non-threatening. Viewers feel they are in market controls which are going forwards. So, there is letting down of guards. In case properly utilized, this shall become most valuable tool of sales in company. Focusing is there on data acquisition, customer experience and relationship building. Then you have interactive successfully of digital signage’s deployment. This marketing type is used for lots of application that includes web browsing, lead captures, sales presentations, training, product tutorials and interactive catalog. Touch screen is as powerful only as content which is driving user’s experience. You do not need reinventing entire company’s campaign of marketing. But there is requirement of content agencies or professional programmers for assisting in bringing 2 together. This is for consistent seamless deliveries of core goals and message.

Interactive Public Display have very quickly become must-have feature for storefronts of retails, trade- shows, sales portable and stationary presentations, lobby displays of corporates and public building’s way findings. You can determine that you are not left out of very true transition in retail local traffic marketing. You should make decisions for getting in on ground floors rather than desiring for it. There are lots of touch screen technology types available. This includes through glass touch screen films on Infrared IR Bezels, glass, dual touch, single touch. Dual touch has varieties of touch points. This includes 32, 2 and 6 touch points. A multi-touch technology is not option being standardized. So, it is recommended that there should be verification that technologies being considered by you for buying purposes should be “true multi-touch touch screen” in fact and not dual touch and others. You can reach to interactive professional display companies for focusing on education factors of yours as customer. So, you utilize effectively technology with quick ROI and minimal learning curves. Screen Solutions is Interactive Full Service Consultants Firm which offers Electric Glass, Rear Projection Film and Interactive Integration, Hardware and Software Services. This is compilation of 10 years and more experiences and dedication to Touch Screen and Digital Signage Solutions for Architectural, Retail, Trade-show and Commercial Industries. All people have used one or have one either. There was no longer of this with science fiction stuff movies. Touch technology have transformed people interacting with computers and hand held devices.

Home based Wireless Work Monitoring System

Concerns of home owners regarding burglary and different threats towards home owner’s securities like rises of home security systems and fires is there. This has happened in USA. 1st home security systems are hard wired. This has been changed. Reason is that wireless system’s existence is hitting big and bigger in home securities. Presently, all top companies of security have been offering security wireless systems. Benefits and advantages to security systems being wireless is more. This factor is rather than becoming hard wired. 1 important benefit of Home based Wireless Work Monitoring System is that there is not lot of time consumption whilst installing this particular system. Whilst it takes quite long time for installing hardly wired system. Reason is that there is wire and different equipment absence which requires installation. There are no necessities of tearing by means of carpets or walls for installing wireless systems. Additional factor is that, wire absence is crucial factor in events of burglary. There is a better scenario that wires have no presence in scenes.

Other important benefits of wireless systems are that it utilizes motion sensors. This is configured by means of using (IR) infrared light. Whilst legitimate motions are detected, alarms are set and there is triggering of controls. Home owners are notified together with various rescue personnel and police. Inclusion with the crucial and essential advantage is that there is existence of backups in events of power failures of neighbourhoods. Top security companies of homes offer protections for 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and 365 days a year. This protection is compromised in case there is system’s absence put in places of failure of power. Your home become in dangers at whatever time. So, systems of security are needed for being ready in all times. Systems being wireless includes all conveniences of present days’ home security systems. This includes 2 way voice mechanism and keypads. This is present such that you could talk to needed authorities in problem events. Keychain remotes let disarming and arming of your systems at any desired place in house. Interaction of keypad is there with control panels.

With home security wireless work monitoring system, all things are put under factors of surveillance. System watches your garage, anywhere, your lawn or your porch. In case alarms are triggered, top security company of home has plenty of command centres. Command centres confirm that alarm legitimate presence is there. Authorities could be on scenes in very short duration of time. Presently, you buy home wireless security systems right out of boxes for installation by oneself. This is not advisable. Home security wireless work monitoring system must be installed by professionals from top most security company of home. They are people who have knowledge about proper setting up of security home systems. Installation of home wireless security systems by professionals could be done every month with low costs. Top security companies of homes offer monitoring for 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and 365 days a year. This facility cannot be availed if you do self-installation of systems. Additional factor is that, having professionals conduct installation of security home systems means you need not do it. Important reasons for installation of security home system are feeling secure and safe. There is a good feeling by knowing that home is protected for 7 days in a week and 24 hours in a day. Nothing in turn offers you similar mind’s peace which is provided by security home systems. Whilst live monitoring is done, you acquire knowledge as to matter that wherever you are, there is still someone taking care of your house.

Printable RFID Circuits- its architecture and technology

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) term is used for identifying automatically objects transmitting identification (in forms of serial unique number) of wireless objects by utilizing radio waves. RFID is (DSRC) Dedicated Short Range Communication technology. It is very same as Barcode Identification System. But there are major differences too. Printable RFID Circuits do not need line of sight accessibility. But in bar code scanning this factor is of prime importance and is integral part. RFID Technologies have been grouped under very generic (Auto ID) Automatic Identification technology. Identification systems existing presently are not sufficient for use. Reasons are their low storage capacities and fact that they are not re-programmable. Feasible solutions are putting data on chips of silicon and contacting lesser data transfers in between devices and readers of data carrying. Power needed for operating data carrying devices are transferred from readers by technologies of contact less. All these lead to Printable RFID Circuits development.

RFID architecture and technology: In RFID system, RFID Tags contain tagged data of objects and generating signals containing information respective. This is read by RFID reader that passes this information to processors for processing information obtained for applications in particular. Along with RFID, electrostatic or electromagnetic coupling in (radio frequency) RF portion of spectrum of electromagnetism is utilized for transmitting signals. RFID systems consist of transceiver and antenna. This reads radio frequency. It transfers information to reader or processing device and transponder. RF tag containing RF information and circuitry for transmission is there too. Antenna provides integrated circuit means for transmitting information to readers. This converts radio waves being reflected back from RFID tags to digital information. This is passed to receivers in which data analysing is conducted. RFID system consist of 3 components namely Transponder or RFID tag, Data processing subsystem and Transceiver or RFID reader.

Tag of RF tag or Transponder is passive or active. Whilst active tags have on-chip powers, passive tags utilize power being induced by magnetic fields of RFID reader. Therefore, passive tags are cheap. But limitation is that, it works in limited frequency ranges. RFID systems have been differentiated on basis of rang of frequency in which it works. Ranges differently are as follows: Low Frequency (LF): 125 kHz to 134.2 kHz and 140 kHz to 148.5 kHz. High-Frequency (HF): 13.56 MHz Ultra High Frequency (UHF): 850 MHz to 950 MHz and 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz. Data processing subsystems are RFID, Transponder, Radio, Identification, Frequency and Tag. Ultra High Frequency RFID system offers transmission ranges of 90 feet and more. But wavelengths in 2.4 GHz ranges have been absorbed by waters. This includes human bodies. This gives limiting factors for its usages. RFID standards most important factors are as follows: Conformance: Tests needed for products for checking that standards are met. Air Interface Protocol: It deals with ways in which readers and tags communicate. Data Content: Organizations of data in the tags. The tags EPC standards are as follows Class 0: It is read only tag which is programmed at time microchip is made. Class 1: It is passive, simple, read only backscatter tag along with 1 time field programmable non-volatile memory. RFID applications various: Few different areas in which RFID passive is applied in recent times are identification of people and person’s location, identification of pet or animal, accessing controls, food production controls, inventory tracking, vehicle parking monitoring or control, toxic waste monitoring, asset management and valuable objects insurance identification.

RFID security: Privacy concerns basically associated with system of RFID are abilities of tracking unauthorized of any person with no consent. It is way by which RFIDs use bypass personal privacy.

Personal Area Network (PAN) – Its types and Working

Personal Area Network (PAN) is computer networks needed for data transmission amongst devices like personal digital assistants, computers and telephones. PANs are used for communications amongst intrapersonal communication (personal devices themselves) or for connection of high levelled network and internet (an uplink). (WPAN) Wireless Personal Area Network is PAN being carried over wireless technology of network like Bluetooth, IrDA, Z-Wave, Body Area Network, INSTEON, ZigBee, and Wireless USB. WPAN reaches varies to few metres from few centimetres. PAN is carried also over wired buses of computers like FireWire and USB. Connection of Wired PAN: Data cables are examples of Wired PAN connections. It is Personal Area Network because this connection is for personal use of users. PAN has being used for only personal uses.

Connection of Wireless Personal Area Network: (WPAN) is PAN of wireless kind. It is network for inter-connection of devices being centred on individual workspace of person. In this, connections must be wireless. The Wireless PANs are based on standard IEEE 802.15. 2 kinds of technologies being wireless and being used for WPANs are Infrared Data Association and Bluetooth. WPAN serves interconnecting all ordinary communicating and computing devices which many people carry with themselves or have on desk. It serves more specialized purposes like allowing surgeons and different team members in communicating whilst operations are conducted. Key issues in technologies of WPANs are called “plugging in”. In ideal scenarios, when 2 WPAN equipped devices come close to one another or in close proximity within some metres of one another. Or, within few kilometres of centralized server, they have communications as if having cable connections. Other crucial features are abilities of all devices locking out different selective devices in turn preventing unwanted interferences or accessibility unauthorized to information. WPANs technologies are in their infancy. It is rapidly undergoing development. Operating frequencies proposed is around 2.4GHz in modes digitally. Objectives are facilitating seamless operations amongst business or home systems and devices. All devices in WPANs have abilities of plugging to other devices in similar WPAN. This is possible provided devices are within physical ranges of one and other. Additionally, worldwide WPANs shall remain interconnected. So, for instance, an archaeologist on sites in Greece can use PDAs for accessibility of databases directly at University of Minnesota in Minneapolis and thereby transmitting findings to particular database.

Bluetooth: The Bluetooth uses radio waves of short ranges over distances approximately till 10m. For instance, Bluetooth devices like pointing devices, audio headsets, printers and key boards connect to cell phones, computers or (PDAs) personal digital assistants wirelessly. Bluetooth PAN is called also “piconet”. This is combination of pico and net. Pico stands for very small, may be one trillionth and net stands for network. It is made of eight active devices in relationship of master-slave. Lots of and plenty of devices are connected in “parked” modes. 1st Bluetooth device in piconet is master. Rest all devices are being slaves. The slaves communicate with master. Typically piconet has ranges of 10m or 33 feet. Though ranges to 100m or 330 feet is reached in perfect and ideal circumstances. Infrared Data Association (IrDA): The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) utilizes infrared lights. This has frequencies below sensitivities of human eyes. Infrared (IR) is used generally, for example in remotes of TVs. WPANs devices typically use IrDA. This includes different serial data interfaces, printers and keyboards. WPAN uses Bluetooth technology for connecting all things from ear pieces and cell phones to desktops and keyboards.

When question of wireless arises people thinks about Wi-Fi hot spots or wireless routers. The Bluetooth acts such as wire wireless which connects short distant components.

Reason for Webpages’ Browsing Slowing down and Consequences

The technological development in this world has brought for all of us a new world of ‘Web’ and one can see there, nearly everyone is using internet and web world to get connected to the rest of areas in the world. This world of Web offers numerous information and data relating to everything on this earth. Many people who are belonging to the various different fields in this world, are using this Web to access their respective information. However, the Webpages browsing have been slowing down consistently. And it is due to modern web advertising practices which are casing the users to experience slowing down of the webpages by burdening web browsers with hundreds or even thousands of requests to fully load all of the advertisements and analytics.

Moreover, there can be seen rise of ad blocking systems which were brought in picture from past few year and also even the largest selling brand Apple has announced that it would permit ad blocking on its mobile devices. This has caused to feel fear in the media industry. It was highly suggested by the brief look at Major News websites’ cross- section from around the globe that the sites of News publishing are also ones among the most bloated websites on the Web. And as per test of one of such site, it is making upwards of 6500 distinct request to more than 130 different domains and it is only for displaying its homepage. This is really shocking.

Thus, in future, if the media sites need to survive in the Web world, then they need to think again for designing the news sites and also actively explore the platforms like Open Source Mobile Optimization platforms, similar to Accelerated Mobile Pages of Google (AMP).

Moreover, the web browsers which are currently in use, are amazing and also they are capable of running the every operating systems inside an emulator executing entirely within the browser itself. However, this is leading to sprawling and massively complex websites which must issue large numbers of requests to various different servers, it the problem with this model. Now a days even the users of the Desktop are facing crashing browsers and sluggish response times at sites pack ever- greater complexity into their site design. Thus, in short, the typical website look like the one for simply viewing the HTML source code of a site.


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