Additive Manufacturing means process by usage of which 3D digital designed data has been used for building up of component in layers by material deposition. Term “3D printing” is same as Additive Manufacturing. Latter is more correct. It is production professional technique that is distinguished clearly from methods conventional of removal of material. Here there is building up of components layer-wise by usage of materials that is present in fine powdery form. Numerous ranged plastics, composite materials and metals are used.
This technology is applied especially in conjunction to Rapid Prototyping which is functional and illustrative prototype construction. It is increasingly used in Series Production. It provides OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) in various industry sectors opportunity of creation of profile distinctively for themselves on basis of cost-saving potentiality, ability of meeting goals sustained and new benefits of customers.
Additive Manufacturing strength lies in area in which manufacturing conventionally reach limitation. Technology is an interesting factor where new manufacturing and designing approaches are needed for coming up along with solutions. This enables manufacturing process that is driven by designing in which designing provides determination to producing factors and not other way round. This technology allows high complex structures that are stable and light extremely. This provides freedom of designing to high degree, manufacturing of batches of small size at costs reasonable, product customization of high degree in serial production and integration and optimization of features functionally.
Additive Manufacturing techniques finds application from 1980s in rapid prototyping, product development, manufacturing specialized and data visualization. Their production expansion like mass production, distributed manufacturing and job production is under development since decades. Roles of industrial production inside industries of metal working have achieved scale significantly for 1st time in 2010 early. At beginning of 21st century there is tremendous growth in AM machines sales and prices have dropped. Numerous applications of technologies are construction (AEC), architecture, food, education, biotech (human tissue replacement), medical and dental industries, footwear, eyewear, geographic information system, jewellery, and industrial design, aerospace, automotive, fashion, engineering and military.
In Extrusion type, technologies are Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), Robocasting and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). In Wire type, technology is EBF3 (Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication). In Granular type, technologies are EBM (Electron-beam melting), SLM (Selective laser melting), DMLS (Direct metal laser sintering), SLS (Selective laser sintering) and SHS (Selective heat sintering). In Laminated type, technology is LOM (Laminated object manufacturing) and in Light polymerised type, technology is DLP (Digital Light Processing).
System begins by application of thin powdered layer material to platform of building. Laser beam that is powerful fuses powder at points exactly defined by component that is computer-generated and designed data. Then there is lowering of platform and application of other powder layer is followed. Then again there is fusing of material such that there is bonding of layer below points predefined. As per used materials there is manufacturing of components by usage of stereo lithography, 3D printing or laser sintering. EOS Additive Manufacturing Technology has been based on sintering of lasers and it has come to picture since 20 years.
3D modelling: 3D models of printing are created with CAD (computer aided design) package or through digital camera or by photogrammetry software or through 3D scanner. Manual process of modelling for preparation of geometric data for graphics of 3D computer is same to sculpting plastic arts. 3D scanning is collecting and analysing process of digital data on appearance and shape of real object. On basis of this 3D models of object scanned can be produced.
Printing: 3D printer provides following of instructions of G-code for laying down successively liquid layer, paper, or powder for building model from series of sections crossed.