Electric powers have been rates at which electrical energies are transferred by electrical circuits. It could be transformed to different power forms. This is when electrical charge moves by means of electrical potential differences. This occurs in electric circuits in electrical components. In the AC circuits, electrical components that are capacitors and inductors may go under periodical changes in energy flow direction. This thereby gives rise to Reactive power and Active Power. Power portion that was averaged over complete cycles of AC waveforms; result in net energy transfer in one direction. This is called Active Power or Real Power. Power portion that was due to energy stored and that return to sources in all cycles, is called Reactive Power.
When there is passing of electric currents through wires, then there is production obviously of magnetic fields in and around it. When these fields alternate in between peak opposite values in both space and time, then induced voltages are produced. This is in any conductor which lies in path of these fields. These particular fields could react with different magnetic fields being established by different conductors. Mechanical forces are created in between 2 conductors. These alternating fields produce alternating currents. This is on basis to enable us for using extensively the electrical powers. DC currents with non-alternating, steady fields do not offer this benefit. Alternating flux poses lots of problems. One amongst them is reactive power. It is that power which is needed for maintaining and establishing fluctuating AC magnetic flux. This is there with no energy transfers taking place for it. Other than this there is active power. This active power does power delivery in thermal, electrical and mechanical forms and in any other desired forms.
Reactive power Consumption in Transmission Line is necessary thing. Without this system shall not function properly. This is one which poses major problems. Areas of problems linked with fields of AC are hunting torque, reactances, arcs, skin effect, resonances and surges. For overcoming these above mentioned problems, the tool being effective is CAPACITOR. When voltages are placed initially across coils, then magnetic fields are built up. This takes sufficient time for currents for reaching full values. It causes currents lagging behind voltages in phases. Therefore, the devices have been said for being lagging reactive power’s sources. Capacitor in AC devices store energies in forms of electrical fields. When currents are driven by means of capacitors, it takes sufficient time duration for charging. This charging builds up production of full differences of voltages. AC network voltage’s across capacitors changes constantly. Capacitor opposes these changes thereby causing voltages lagging behind currents. Speaking in other words, currents leads voltages in phases. So, the devices are sources of reactive leading powers. Electrical generator supplies reactive power plus active power. This is consumed by loads of customer. Reactive power purposes: Synchronous generators, different types of various (DER) Distributed Energy Resource and SVC equipment are utilized for maintaining voltages all through transmission system. Reactive power injection to system raises voltage. Reactive power absorption lower voltages. Requirements of voltage support are function of magnitudes and location of customer loads, DER configuration transmission system and generator outputs. Requirements substantially differ from one location to other. It rapidly changes as location and magnitude of load and generation changes. At too much lowered levels of system loads, the transmission lines acting as capacitors increases voltages. At load’s high levels, transmission lines lower voltages by absorbing reactive powers. Equipment of transmission system like tap changing transformers is static. But it could be switched for responding to voltage support required changes. Operation of system has some objectives whilst managing voltages and reactive power.