In 3rd recalls in present Indian financials year, car maker of Japan in India namely Honda Cars India on 19th February 2016 (Friday) made announcement to recall 57676 units of 3 models. These models are namely Civic, City and Jazz. They were manufactured in between 2012 January and 2013 June. Their existence replaced inflator’s airbags which were faulty.
Recalls said by company are parts of global preventive exercises which affects 49572 City sedan units. They were made in between 2012 January and 2013 June. Units numbered 7504 of hatchback premium Jazz were manufactured at times during 2012 February to 2013 February. Units numbered 600 of Civic was produced in between 2012 January and 2012 August. All this was said by Honda Cars India in statement.
In last year September (2015), company announced recalling units of Rupees 2.24 lakh of premium vehicles of sports utilities namely sedans Civic, CR-V, hatchback Jazz and City. These were produced in between 2003 and 2012. It was followed by recalling of units numbered 90210 of sedan City and many purposes vehicles Mobilio in month December. Recalls in December was to be used for those vehicles being produced in between 2013 December and 2015 July for replacing faulty fuelling returning pipes. Company stated that replacements are carried out without costs at dealerships of HCIL throughout India in phasing ways from 2016 February 20.
The invention of vehicles made a land mark in the history of human race. The evolution of vehicles from animal carts to motor vehicles made the travel convenient and easy for people. By 19th century the use of motor vehicles was popular. The illustrious and affluent class people used motor vehicles as a prestigious symbol. Among the vehicles motor cars were widely used. After industrialization the use of motor vehicles increased as result of usage of motor vehicles by the common man. Soon the use of vehicles became an integral part of people in modern time all over the world. Among the motor vehicles the motor cars were accepted by people irrespective of their class or standard in the society. Soon cars became a necessity of common man rather than a luxury of elite class. Different models of cars were introduced by car manufacturing companies all over the world.
The increase in the demand of new and innovative designs and models of cars made the car companies particularly world class car manufacturing companies to increase in the production of cars within short intervals in a year. Most of the motor cars work using fuels. Diesel and petrol are the most popular fuels used in motor cars. In most of the developed countries gasoline cars replaces diesel or petrol cars. During the 19th and earlier 20th century the introduction of electric cars also made a change in the history of cars. People of elite class preferred electric cars as they were not common in usage due to their expensive usage. The work pattern of electric cars is based on electric usage by storing electric energy in the batteries of the engine in electric cars. An electric vehicle or automobile is defined as a vehicle that use electric motor for propulsion unlike an electric car that use electricity that is stored in the battery of the car engine. During 1930’s the introduction of gasoline cars that had half reduced cost effect in comparison to the electric cars gave a declined graph in the use of electric cars.
After a long time of decline during early 1990’s and in recent years, electric cars regained demand among different class of people in the society. The adverse environmental impact created by fuel and gasoline vehicles gave a new perspective in the use of electric cars. Apart form the initial cost and expense the new battery technologies used in the modern cars resulted in the increased demand of electric cars today. The remarkable features of electric cars are their environmental friendly use that does not result in the air pollution like fuel or gasoline vehicles. They do not produce any carbon compounds like hydro carbon, carbon monoxide, ozone lead and other volatile compounds emitted from the motor vehicles. Another feature is its efficiency. Unlike motor vehicles with internal combustion engines that waste the fuel through heat during propulsion electric car motors converts the battery stored energy to drive the vehicle without emitting any pollutants. A typical electric car use 10-23 kilowatts per hour. The only drawback in the electric car is that 20% of the power consumption is used for charging the batteries. The risk of fire in the engine due to the overheating of batteries is another negative aspect in electric cars.
The safety measures in electric cars are done as per the standards of ISO 6469. The three major concerns regarding the safety measures taken in electric cars are onboard electrical energy storage in the battery, protection of person against electrical hazards and functional safety means and protection against failures.
The usage of electric car need to be promoted more in this modern era for its efficient function and less environmental damage features despite its heavy initial cost and expense.
One of the greatest inventions in the history of mankind is the invention of automobiles. In ancient times the mode of travel from one place to another was walking long distances. The affluent people used to have palanquins and palanquin bearers. Another mode of travel was using animals. Horses and elephants were trained for the purpose of traveling. Gradually wooden structures attached with wheels were begun to be used for moving from one place to another. This was the primitive form of an automobile. Later animals were used to drag or move these wheels structure formed another mode of transportation known as the carts. In some places servants were used in the place of animals to pull the carts. Gradually carts were used for several purposes of traveling including carrying luggage and people. Bullock carts and horse carriages became common for traveling. Soon after the invention of carts steam engine was introduced. By the middle of 18th century motor engines were introduced. Automobiles using fuels were introduced and replaced carts, cycles and steam engines.
In the year 1902 manufacturing of automobiles at a large scale was introduced. After the introduction of Ford Cars, the automobile industry was literally dominated by the Ford Company. In the year 1914 the manufacturing of automobiles particularly the production of parts of cars and its interchangeable parts were introduced in a massive scale by Henry Ford. The special feature of Ford cars were there high productivity in the number of cars produced. The human resource or the man power used for the production of Ford cars were less when compared to production of other automobiles. The productivity of the ford cars were eight fold. The fast drying Duo lacquer was used in ford cars. Another feature of the ford cars were the high efficiency of the workers. This was mainly due to their work pattern assigned to them. Every worker was assigned specific work area that increased the efficiency and productivity of the worker. Their efficiency was well paid with high wages that to a great extent increased the economic strategy of United States. The high efficiency and high wages theory was the inspiration to other industries. The growth of the Ford Company was amazing as it resulted in overwhelming response from the automobile users all over the world that made the company to have new openings all over the world. The fame of Ford was spread in most parts of the Europe that resulted in the new production of Ford cars in Britain and France in 1911. Ford Denmark in 1923 and Ford Germany in 1925. The brand name Ford became the synonym for cars during that period and even today to certain extent the conservative section of society considers Ford as the most valuable possession they can have. After Ford several cars manufactures like Morris and Apperson came to the automobile industry. At the time of economic depression during 1930 even renowned car companies, Dorris, Haynes, Cole and Premier had to face harsh economic crisis. The American car manufacturers in 1920 were about 200 reduced to a number of 43 in the year 1930.
Today most of the car uses advanced technology with internal combustion engine with high fuel efficiency. For more efficiency most of the automobiles use gasoline and petrol. Diesel is another fuel used in cars next to gasoline and petrol.
Future car technologies are more advanced with battery electric and electric vehicles, bio fuels, hydrogen cars and alternative fuels. The new technology development focuses on driverless car in near future for the future generations.
It is an admitted fact that what ever be the technology an automobile industry without the production of cars is unimaginable in the fast moving life of today.
World without voice and sound is beyond imagination. The various sound produced makes a lively life. Sounds are used in various forms that make musical notes and sound from the instruments. After the invention of radio people began to listen to various radio programs including entertainment program and news. With introduction of several transmission stations different type of radio programs were stated to be broadcasted. During the period of 1930’s music lovers began to adapt domestic audio equipment in their cars. Later on with the invention of audio systems people started using personal audio systems that recorded and played different programs. With the technological development radio systems began to be used in the vehicles. In 1930s the first fitted car radio was introduced by Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. During 1950’s-1970’s car radios with tune in function became popular. In the year 1983 the car audio amplifiers were introduced by Steven Mantz as Hi Fonics Zeus.
Earlier the home audio speakers were installed in the cars. In order for to adapt these home audio speakers to the temperature variations different components and different manufacturing techniques were used. During the 1980s compact discs were introduced that replaced the magnetic tape systems that were used as audio cassettes in audio systems. Later on stereo systems began to be the most widely used in automobiles particularly in the cars as it gave more clarity sounds instead of the mono audio systems.
In 1990’s technological revolutions began in the audio system technology. The CDs were widely used in the cars. The major drawback of CDs was that they are subject to vibration and temperature of moving vehicle that affected the sound quality. Many innovations including passive and active digital skip protection improved the vibration and temperature while playing and reduced the risk of shock and vibration.
There are several components included in the car stereo or audio system. The stock system in a vehicle includes stereo sound head unit, speakers, CD player. These components are installed in the interior panels and input jack for external play back devices including smart phones. The main component is the head unit. It is the primary control device in an audio system. This need to be fixed in the dash panel of the vehicle between the passenger and the driver. It is placed in certain vehicles vertically between the passenger and the driver. The standard size of the head units are technically termed as DIN. There are two types of DIN single and double DIN. The head unit is a multipurpose device with a group of devices with different functions. CD player, DVD player, satellite radio, HD radio, USB flash memory, a portable hard disc drive and radio receiver and tuner for receiving and tuning FM radio transmissions. The stereo speakers in cars are like the loudspeakers. Marine speakers have the special feature of corrosion resistance. The materials used are with expensive and rare components that are adaptable for mobile use. In modern cars speakers are installed in front deck or dash of the car, the rear deck the kick panel that is located in the foot well below the A- pillar. Even though the headsets have an inbuilt amplifier some time as an additional feature external amplifiers are also installed in the vehicle.
One of the drawbacks of the car stereos is the legal restriction in the production of sound in the vehicle. There are strict legal restrictions regarding the production of sound that the stereo sound shouldn’t exceed any sound limit that makes noise pollution. The loud stereo systems create low frequency of sound resulting in bass voices that exceeds the audible limit.
The relaxing and refreshing music from the stereo systems is a good factor to have a car drive but the control over sound produced form the system need to be in concern while driving.
Own vehicle is an asset for a person. A standard middle class family always give priority for own vehicle. People through different ways purchase vehicle and one of the most important sources of purchasing vehicle is by availing loan facility other than ready cash payment. Today a vehicle is a necessity more than a luxury. Even school students use two wheelers. The most used vehicle in a family all over the world are cars. There is a large sector of consumers of cars who use the cars on rental basis. Prime concern is given to people who have own car or vehicle that is not within their service due to several reasons. The car owners sometimes cannot use their damaged cars given for repair or service and owners who wait for insurance compensation mostly use the facility of rental car services. Some agencies give other vehicles like van or trucks on rental basis depending on the customer regarding the need and size of the vehicle.
Mostly the rented cars are not used for a longer period. There will be a stipulated period for the usage of the car and it has to be returned after the expiry of the rented period. The car or the automobile rental is normally undertaken by agencies. Each agency will have different local branches in the most important places in cities and towns where there is a high demand for rented cars. Usually rented cars are used for a shorter period of certain hours to few weeks or months. Many agencies provide online website reservation for the assigned vehicles for rent. Most of the branches of the agencies are located near railway stations, airports and busy city areas. This facility near the busy city areas are mainly focused on travelers particularly foreign travelers.
There are several methods for rental of the car. Some agencies provide additional features of GPS navigation systems, entertainment systems insurance and use of mobile phones and internet service. The vehicle is given for rent for a stipulated period for a fixed rent or fee. The fee might be fixed on rent basis or for lease. There is also a re purchase program as a buy back guaranteed price. There purchase method is with the manufacturer agreeing for a price that is not the original price at the time of resale of the vehicle after the expiry of the rental period. After the expiry of the rental period the vehicles are given in the re used vehicle market. This is usually done with the second hand or used vehicle market dealers by the rental car agencies after the expiry of the rental car agreement.
Various conditions are defined in the rental agreement that may change from place to place. A valid driving license for the divers assigned in the rent car agencies is the basic and compulsory requirement. The term of the car used on rent basis also varies according to the need of the customers and the agreement between the dealer and the customer.
There are specific speed limits defined in the agreement. Some agencies use the GPS for speed limit that shouldn’t exceed the maximum speed limit. The quantity of fuel used is also specified in rental agreement. In developed countries renewable fuel vehicles are used. Credit cards are most often used by the rental car agencies. The credit cards are used as security to impose additional fees if any damage happens to the vehicle during the rental agreement period.
There are several types of insurance coverage available. Loss damage waiver, supplemental liability insurance, personal accident insurance, personal effects coverage and excess insurance are the most used types of insurance provided for the rent a car customer.
The rent a car supplemental service is really a great alternative for people who have usage of the vehicle for a short period.