Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) term is used for identifying automatically objects transmitting identification (in forms of serial unique number) of wireless objects by utilizing radio waves. RFID is (DSRC) Dedicated Short Range Communication technology. It is very same as Barcode Identification System. But there are major differences too. Printable RFID Circuits do not need line of sight accessibility. But in bar code scanning this factor is of prime importance and is integral part. RFID Technologies have been grouped under very generic (Auto ID) Automatic Identification technology. Identification systems existing presently are not sufficient for use. Reasons are their low storage capacities and fact that they are not re-programmable. Feasible solutions are putting data on chips of silicon and contacting lesser data transfers in between devices and readers of data carrying. Power needed for operating data carrying devices are transferred from readers by technologies of contact less. All these lead to Printable RFID Circuits development.
RFID architecture and technology: In RFID system, RFID Tags contain tagged data of objects and generating signals containing information respective. This is read by RFID reader that passes this information to processors for processing information obtained for applications in particular. Along with RFID, electrostatic or electromagnetic coupling in (radio frequency) RF portion of spectrum of electromagnetism is utilized for transmitting signals. RFID systems consist of transceiver and antenna. This reads radio frequency. It transfers information to reader or processing device and transponder. RF tag containing RF information and circuitry for transmission is there too. Antenna provides integrated circuit means for transmitting information to readers. This converts radio waves being reflected back from RFID tags to digital information. This is passed to receivers in which data analysing is conducted. RFID system consist of 3 components namely Transponder or RFID tag, Data processing subsystem and Transceiver or RFID reader.
Tag of RF tag or Transponder is passive or active. Whilst active tags have on-chip powers, passive tags utilize power being induced by magnetic fields of RFID reader. Therefore, passive tags are cheap. But limitation is that, it works in limited frequency ranges. RFID systems have been differentiated on basis of rang of frequency in which it works. Ranges differently are as follows: Low Frequency (LF): 125 kHz to 134.2 kHz and 140 kHz to 148.5 kHz. High-Frequency (HF): 13.56 MHz Ultra High Frequency (UHF): 850 MHz to 950 MHz and 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz. Data processing subsystems are RFID, Transponder, Radio, Identification, Frequency and Tag. Ultra High Frequency RFID system offers transmission ranges of 90 feet and more. But wavelengths in 2.4 GHz ranges have been absorbed by waters. This includes human bodies. This gives limiting factors for its usages. RFID standards most important factors are as follows: Conformance: Tests needed for products for checking that standards are met. Air Interface Protocol: It deals with ways in which readers and tags communicate. Data Content: Organizations of data in the tags. The tags EPC standards are as follows Class 0: It is read only tag which is programmed at time microchip is made. Class 1: It is passive, simple, read only backscatter tag along with 1 time field programmable non-volatile memory. RFID applications various: Few different areas in which RFID passive is applied in recent times are identification of people and person’s location, identification of pet or animal, accessing controls, food production controls, inventory tracking, vehicle parking monitoring or control, toxic waste monitoring, asset management and valuable objects insurance identification.
RFID security: Privacy concerns basically associated with system of RFID are abilities of tracking unauthorized of any person with no consent. It is way by which RFIDs use bypass personal privacy.